Abstract

We report a diode-pumped 2.78 μm Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser passively Q switched by a graphene saturable absorber, which was directly deposited onto a fiber dichroic mirror by the method of optically driven deposition. Stable Q-switched operation with a pulse duration of 2.9 μs and a pulse energy of 1.67 μJ was achieved in a 10 m long gain fiber. The pulse duration was reduced to 1 μs when the gain fiber length was shortened to 2 m. This Letter demonstrates that graphene is a promising and reliable saturable absorber for mid-infrared pulse generation at 3 μm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (6)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokita, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, and S. Sakabe, Opt. Lett. 34, 3062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D. K. Ko, and J. Lee, Opt. Commun. 236, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Kampmeier, S. Schafer, G. E. Lang, and G. K. Lang, J. Refract. Surg. 15, 563 (1999).

1996 (1)

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. I. Deckelbaum, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, Electron. Lett. 30, 706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Androz, G.

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, M.

Birngruber, R.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caron, N.

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W.

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Coleman, D. J.

D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D. K. Ko, and J. Lee, Opt. Commun. 236, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deckelbaum, L. I.

L. I. Deckelbaum, Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, T. F.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

di Giovanni, D. J.

Faucher, D.

Featherstone, J. D.

H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Express 20, 25077 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Flotte, T. J.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Frerichs, C.

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, Electron. Lett. 30, 706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D.

H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 183 (2007).
[CrossRef]

George, P.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Express 20, 25077 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Hashida, M.

Hong, B. H.

Hudson, D. D.

Jackson, S. D.

Jain, R.

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Kampmeier, J.

J. Kampmeier, S. Schafer, G. E. Lang, and G. K. Lang, J. Refract. Surg. 15, 563 (1999).

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Kim, J. W.

King, T. A.

D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D. K. Ko, and J. Lee, Opt. Commun. 236, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. K.

D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D. K. Ko, and J. Lee, Opt. Commun. 236, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lang, G. E.

J. Kampmeier, S. Schafer, G. E. Lang, and G. K. Lang, J. Refract. Surg. 15, 563 (1999).

Lang, G. K.

J. Kampmeier, S. Schafer, G. E. Lang, and G. K. Lang, J. Refract. Surg. 15, 563 (1999).

Lee, J.

D. J. Coleman, T. A. King, D. K. Ko, and J. Lee, Opt. Commun. 236, 379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Xu, and P. Wang, Opt. Commun. 285, 5319 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, and P. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 4008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masaki, H.

Masanao, M.

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, M.

Ni, Z.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Norwood, R.

Norwood, R. A.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, Nat. Mater. 6, 183 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wei, X. Zhu, R. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 37, 3849 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Express 20, 25077 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Popov, S. V.

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Q.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

Sakabe, S.

Schafer, S.

J. Kampmeier, S. Schafer, G. E. Lang, and G. K. Lang, J. Refract. Surg. 15, 563 (1999).

Schomacker, K.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seiji, S.

Sennaroglu, A.

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shigeki, T.

Shimizu, S.

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shuji, S.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strait, J.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Express 20, 25077 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, Opt. Express 17, 17630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tauermann, T.

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, Electron. Lett. 30, 706 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Tokita, S.

Torrisi, F.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Express 20, 25077 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, F. Torrisi, Z. Jiang, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, W. Cho, and A. C. Ferrari, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2012), paper JW2A.72.

Unrau, U. B.

C. Frerichs and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Veksler, D.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

Q. Ren, V. Venugopalan, K. Schomacker, T. F. Deutsch, T. J. Flotte, C. A. Puliafito, and R. Birngruber, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Visuri, S. R.

H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waldvogel, J. L.

H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Express 20, 25077 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Infrared transmission and Raman spectrum (inset) of graphene drop casted on silicon substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscopic pictures of the fiber mirror end (a) before and (b) after graphene deposition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic setup of the graphene passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical Q-switched pulse trains at pump powers of (a) 406.4 mW and (b) 828 mW; (c) pulse envelopes of the shortest stable pulses obtained in 10 m (blue curve) and 2 m (magenta curve) gain fibers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

RF spectrum of the graphene passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser pumped at 406 mW.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum of the Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser Q-switched by the graphene thin film.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Pulse duration (black line with squares) and repetition rate (blue line with circles) as a function of the pump power.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Pulse energy (black line with squares) and average output power (blue line with circles) as a function of the pump power.

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