Abstract

We observed the filamentation of mid-infrared ultrashort laser pulses (3.9 μm, 80 fs) in molecular gases. It efficiently generates a broadband supercontinuum over two octaves in the 2.5–6 μm spectral range, with a red-shift up to 500 nm due to the Raman effect, which dominates over the blue shift induced by self-steepening and the gas ionization. As a result, the conversion efficiency into the Stokes region (4.3–6 μm) 65% is demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Opt. Lett. 36, 2755 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronin, S. Ališauskas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 33, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, Opt. Lett. 32, 2481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bernstein, J.-C. Diels, T. S. Luk, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, and S. M. Cameron, Opt. Lett. 28, 2354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

T. Seideman, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7887 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ališauskas, S.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andriukaitis, G.

Austin, D. R.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Azzeer, A. M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balciunas, T.

Baltuška, A.

Baudisch, M.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, M. Petrarca, P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 3456 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, A. C.

Biegert, J.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 13, 7541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, S. M.

Chen, M.-C.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

Eckle, P.

Faccio, D.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, O.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiess, M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Goulielmakis, E.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 33, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

Guandalini, A.

Hauri, C.

Hemmer, M.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henin, S.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, E.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horio, T.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kartashov, D.

Kasparian, J.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, M. Petrarca, P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 3456 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kiselev, D.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, S.

Kornelis, W.

Kosareva, O.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 33, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loriot, V.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

Marceau, C.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, O. D.

A. A. Voronin, S. Ališauskas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, T. R.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petit, Y.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petrarca, M.

Popmintchev, T.

Prade, B.

Pugžlys, A.

Reiter, B.

Reiter, F.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 33, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schweinberger, W.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

T. Seideman, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7887 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 33, 1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silva, F.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Thai, A.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, A. J.

Vieillard, T.

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Voronin, A.

Voronin, A. A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 2268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronin, S. Ališauskas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, M. Petrarca, P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 3456 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Béjot, J. Kasparian, S. Henin, V. Loriot, T. Vieillard, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, and J.-P. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, D. Kiselev, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Y. Chen, F. Théberge, C. Marceau, H. Xu, N. Aközbek, O. Kosareva, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 91, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A.

Zheltikov, A. M.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. A. Voronin, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, Opt. Lett. 37, 2268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Voronin, S. Ališauskas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Reiter, U. Graf, E. E. Serebryannikov, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, A. M. Azzeer, F. Krausz, A. M. Zheltikov, and E. Goulielmakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Longitudinal plasma distribution in nitrogen at 4 bar with an input energy of 6.5 mJ: measurements (blue line) and simulations with (magenta dashed line) and without (green dashed–dotted line) high-order Kerr effects (HOKEs). The experimental measurement is normalized to the peak of the numerical result. (b) Dependence of the filament length (foot to foot) on nitrogen pressure. The right axis shows the filament length normalized to the experimentally measured Rayleigh length ZR9cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Blue solid line—spectrum measured after the cell filled by 4 bars of nitrogen, pulse energy 9 mJ; magenta dashed line—numerical simulations. (b) Olive solid line—spectrum measured after the cell filled by 4 bars of oxygen, pulse energy 9 mJ. Magenta dashed line—numerical simulations. (c) Red solid line—spectrum measured with 4.5 bars of Ar, pulse energy 6.5 mJ. Magenta dashed line—numerical simulations. The input spectrum is shown in all panels by the grey filled profile.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerically calculated spectra broadening in 4 bars of (a) nitrogen and (b) oxygen without Raman contribution (dashed line) and with Raman contribution included (solid line). The gray filled profile in both panels shows the input pulse spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Supercontinuum distribution over the beam at the output of a cell with (a) N2 and (b) O2 at p=4atm for an input pulse width of 80 fs and an initial energy of 9 mJ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Central wavelength of a mid-IR laser pulse with an input pulse width of 80 fs and an initial energy of 9 mJ as a function of propagation distance in (a) molecular nitrogen and (b) molecular oxygen, both at p=4atm, simulated using the full model with all the relevant effects included (blue and green solid line correspondingly), without HOKEs (red dashed–dotted line), without the shock term (magenta dashed line), and without the Raman effect (the bordeaux dotted line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulation of temporal envelopes of the Mid-IR laser output (dark blue dashed line), the pulse behind the gas cell with N2 at 4 bar (blue dotted line), compressed pulse behind a 1.6 mm-thick CaF2 plate (magenta solid line), and transform-limited pulse supported by the entire spectrum bandwidth generated in the filament inside the gas cell (green dashed–dotted line).

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