Abstract

A method for measurement of a magnetic field by filling a microhole with magnetic fluid (MF) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. A microhole is created in the collapsed region between the PCF and the single-mode fiber by using femtosecond laser micromachining, and a PCF-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer is formed. The MF is filled into the microhole. Due to the tunable refractive index property of the MF, the mode field diameter of the propagation light is changed with the external magnetic field, and the magnetic field can be detected by measuring the visibility contrast of the white light interferogram. The experimental results show that sensitivity of up to 0.042dB/Oe is achieved.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, Opt. Lett. 38, 1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A. 84, 033810 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Opt. Lett. 36, 3416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, J. Yang, S. Wang, B. Li, and M. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 3753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

Abdelaziz, S.

Badenes, G.

Chan, C. C.

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, L. H.

Chieh, J. J.

Ding, H.

Ding, W. H.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

Edwin, T.

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1150 (2012).

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A. 84, 033810 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Opt. Lett. 36, 3416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, Opt. Lett. 38, 1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

Ion, B.

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1150 (2012).

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Jiang, Y.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, Opt. Lett. 38, 1539 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. X.

Kale, S. N.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kitture, R.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lew, W. S.

Li, B.

Li, X. L.

Liew, H. F.

Lin, J.

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1150 (2012).

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Opt. Lett. 36, 3416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A. 84, 033810 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. X.

Liu, Z. H.

Luo, S. Z.

Minkovich, V. P.

Nalawade, S. M.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Thakur, H. V.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, F. J.

Villatoro, J.

Wang, M.

Wang, S.

Wang, Z.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. C.

Yang, J.

Yang, S. Y.

Yang, X. H.

Yuan, L. B.

Zhang, Y. F.

Zhao, E. M.

Zu, P.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1150 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. V. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A 84, 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A.

J. Lin and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. A. 84, 033810 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Lin, B. Ion, and T. Edwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. H. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, Sens. Actuators B 177, 924 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the cross section of the PCF used for the experiment. (b) Close view of the collapsed region with the microhole.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of the PCF-based MZI without the microhole, with the air-filled microhole, and with the MF-filled microhole.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the sensor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modes coupling with (a) small MFD and (b) large MFD. (c) Relationship between the visibility and the coupling ratio.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement setup.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Transmission spectra of the sensor at different magnetic fields. (b) Visibilities of transmission spectra at different magnetic fields.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Close view of microholes with different diameter: (a) 14 μm, (b) 21 μm, (c) 34 μm. (d) Simulation result of MFD3. (e) Visibilities of transmission spectra with different microholes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Close view of microholes with different distance from the SMF: (a) 85 μm, (b) 156 μm, (c) 321 μm. (d) Simulation result of MFD3. (e) Visibilities of transmission spectra with different locations of the microhole.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MFD2=2MFD11+(z2λ/n1(H)πMFD12)2,
MFD3=2MFD21+(z3λ/nπMFD22)2=2[2MFD11+(z2λ/n1(H)πMFD12)2)]1+{z3λ/nπ[2MFD11+(z2λ/n1(H)πMFD12)2]2},
V=2IcoIclIco2+Icl2=2Ico/Icl+Icl/Ico,

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