Abstract

We numerically investigate the optical properties of a spiral G-shaped metamaterial, which exhibits both a sharp resonance with a high-quality factor and a broad resonance with a long linear slope in the near-infrared region. By employing the sharp resonating mode, refractive index sensing with sensitivity up to 410nm/RIU is demonstrated theoretically. In addition, the metamaterial shows single wavelength sensing ability, which allows fast determination of environmental refractive index changes as large as 0.5 by simply monitoring variations in the transmitted intensity of a certain wavelength, which will be beneficial to the development of refractive index sensors based on monochromatic light sources and detectors. As the resonances are independent of the polarization direction of a linearly polarized wave, the sensor manufacturing process will benefit as a result of the lack of an alignment requirement for the axis of polarizers with the metamaterials’ orientation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Blanchard-Dionne, L. Guyot, S. Patskovsky, R. Gordon, and M. Meunier, Opt. Express 19, 15041 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, Sensors 12, 2742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Wu, B. Li, C. Xu, G. Zhang, and L. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 153114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

I. Pryce, Y. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. Atwater, ACS Nano 5, 8167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, Nano Lett. 11, 3232 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanchard-Dionne, L. Guyot, S. Patskovsky, R. Gordon, and M. Meunier, Opt. Express 19, 15041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, Science 330, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 3, 643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, S.-H. Wu, and P.-K. Wei, Opt. Express 17, 23104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

I. Pryce, Y. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. Atwater, ACS Nano 5, 8167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

I. Pryce, Y. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. Atwater, ACS Nano 5, 8167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Dionne, A.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2010).

Chang, S.-H.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, Sensors 12, 2742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R.

P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dorpe, P. V.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 3, 643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V.

V. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, Science 330, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gillijns, W.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

Gu, C.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, L.

Halas, N.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 3, 643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hendren, W.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirscher, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hogle, J. M.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hohenester, U.

J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jakab, A.

J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, J.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaelberer, T.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, Science 330, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelaita, Y.

I. Pryce, Y. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. Atwater, ACS Nano 5, 8167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lagae, L.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. N.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-L.

Li, B.

H. Liu, X. Wu, B. Li, C. Xu, G. Zhang, and L. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 153114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, Nano Lett. 11, 3232 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, Sensors 12, 2742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, X. Wu, B. Li, C. Xu, G. Zhang, and L. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 153114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lodewijks, K.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 3, 643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, M.

Moshchalkov, V.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 3, 643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papasimakis, N.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, Science 330, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

Peng, B.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, Nano Lett. 11, 3232 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R.

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S.

V. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pryce, I.

I. Pryce, Y. Kelaita, K. Aydin, and H. Atwater, ACS Nano 5, 8167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quan, B.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rose, M.

V. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silhanek, A.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, ACS Nano 3, 643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, Sensors 12, 2742 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Trügler, A.

J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, Science 330, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valev, V.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vandenbosch, G.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vandenbosch, G. A.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, T.

V. Valev, A. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. Aktsipetrov, G. Vandenbosch, V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, Nano Lett. 11, 391 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 10, 1103 (2010).
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M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2010).

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X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, Nano Lett. 11, 3232 (2011).
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H. Liu, X. Wu, B. Li, C. Xu, G. Zhang, and L. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 153114 (2012).
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A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
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Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
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L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, Nano Lett. 5, 2034 (2005).
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H. Liu, X. Wu, B. Li, C. Xu, G. Zhang, and L. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 153114 (2012).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2334 (2009).
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Nano Lett. (5)

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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. Liu, X. Xia, Y. Sun, H. Yang, R. Chen, B. Liu, B. Quan, J. Li, and C. Gu, Nanotechnology 23, 275503 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. Zheludev, S. Maier, N. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. Chong, Nat. Mater. 9, 707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. Podolskiy, and A. Zayats, Nat. Mater. 8, 867 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

V. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
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J. Becker, A. Trügler, A. Jakab, U. Hohenester, and C. Sönnichsen, Plasmonics 5, 161 (2010).
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Science (1)

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, Science 330, 1510 (2010).
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T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, Sensors 12, 2742 (2012).
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Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spiral metamaterial and its spectral properties. (a) Silver G-shaped spiral metamaterial lying on top of a SiO2 substrate. (b) Transmission and reflection spectra of metamaterial. Transmission and reflection resonances are labeled by A, B, C, and D, respectively. The linear slope between B and D is marked by an oblique eyeguiding gray (red online) dashed line.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field maps of the metamaterial. Field maps for resonances A, B, C, and D in a single unit cell under x polarized wave. The gray (color online) maps show the distribution of an electric field magnitude |E|, and the induced effective electric dipoles ps in individual elements are given by solid lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated sensing properties of metamaterial. (a) Spectral shift induced by ambient refractive index increase from 1.0 to 1.5. (b) Transmission resonance wavelength shift Δλ against Δn. (c) Transmittance change ΔT against Δn at 833 nm. The solid lines show the linear fit using the least-squares method.

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