Abstract

Imaging of object structures using cylindrical vector beams in an aplanatic solid immersion lens (SIL) microscope is investigated. Based on a complete optical model of an aplanatic SIL microscope, images of some object structures using radial polarization, azimuthal polarization, and azimuthal vortex beams are simulated. Some interesting imaging effects of these object structures are observed. For example, counterintuitively, it is found that, compared to linear and circular polarizations, radial polarization requires a larger pinhole to acquire a good image and resolution. Similarly, it is shown that an azimuthal vortex beam provides good images for a variety of object structures and pinhole sizes. Theories and explanations are provided to justify the observed effects. The presented results play an important role in high-numerical-aperture optical imaging.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

Q. Zhan, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tang, E. Y. S. Yew, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 34, 2147 (2009).

C. J. R. Sheppard, S. Rehman, N. K. Balla, E. Y. S. Yew, and T. W. Teng, Opt. Commun. 282, 4647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Rao, J. X. Pu, Z. Y. Chen, and P. Yei, Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Goh and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 282, 1036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101109, (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, Nat. Photonics 2, 311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, P. R. T. Munro, and E. E. Kriezis, Opt. Express 16, 507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901, (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Helseth, Opt. Commun. 191, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, Opt. Express 7, 77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, K.

Balla, N. K.

C. J. R. Sheppard, S. Rehman, N. K. Balla, E. Y. S. Yew, and T. W. Teng, Opt. Commun. 282, 4647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Chen, R.

Chen, X.

Chen, Z. Y.

L. Z. Rao, J. X. Pu, Z. Y. Chen, and P. Yei, Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Appl. Opt. 43, 4322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chung, E.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eberler, M.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elings, V. B.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghislain, L. P.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glockl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goh, S. H.

S. H. Goh and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 282, 1036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X. A.

Helseth, L. E.

L. E. Helseth, Opt. Commun. 191, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoang, T. X.

Hu, L.

Huang, K.

Ippolito, S. B.

S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101109, (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

Kino, G. S.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koh, L. S.

K. Agarwal, R. Chen, L. S. Koh, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. C. H. Phang, and X. Chen, “Experimental validation of the computational model of aplanatic solid immersion lens scanning microscope,” presented at Focus on Microscopy 2013, Maastricht, The Netherlands, March24–27, 2013.

Kriezis, E. E.

Kuang, C. F.

Lee, G. C. F.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lim, K. M.

Liu, X.

Mansfield, S. M.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miles, D. L.

S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101109, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munro, P. R. T.

Phang, J. C. H.

Pu, J. X.

L. Z. Rao, J. X. Pu, Z. Y. Chen, and P. Yei, Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramsay, E.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, Nat. Photonics 2, 311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L. Z.

L. Z. Rao, J. X. Pu, Z. Y. Chen, and P. Yei, Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rehman, S.

C. J. R. Sheppard, S. Rehman, N. K. Balla, E. Y. S. Yew, and T. W. Teng, Opt. Commun. 282, 4647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, Nat. Photonics 2, 311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serrels, K. A.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, Nat. Photonics 2, 311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

So, P. T. C.

Song, P.

S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101109, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestri, J. D.

S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101109, (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W. T.

Teng, T. W.

C. J. R. Sheppard, S. Rehman, N. K. Balla, E. Y. S. Yew, and T. W. Teng, Opt. Commun. 282, 4647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Török, P.

Ünlü, M. S.

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. T.

Warburton, R. J.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, Nat. Photonics 2, 311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. L.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yei, P.

L. Z. Rao, J. X. Pu, Z. Y. Chen, and P. Yei, Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yew, E. Y. S.

C. J. R. Sheppard, S. Rehman, N. K. Balla, E. Y. S. Yew, and T. W. Teng, Opt. Commun. 282, 4647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tang, E. Y. S. Yew, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 34, 2147 (2009).

Youngworth, K. S.

Zhan, Q.

Zhong, Y.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92101109, (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, Nat. Photonics 2, 311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

S. H. Goh and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 282, 1036 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Helseth, Opt. Commun. 191, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Commun. 179, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, S. Rehman, N. K. Balla, E. Y. S. Yew, and T. W. Teng, Opt. Commun. 282, 4647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

L. Z. Rao, J. X. Pu, Z. Y. Chen, and P. Yei, Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 241 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Q. Wu, L. P. Ghislain, and V. B. Elings, Proc. IEEE 88, 1491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Agarwal, R. Chen, L. S. Koh, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. C. H. Phang, and X. Chen, “Experimental validation of the computational model of aplanatic solid immersion lens scanning microscope,” presented at Focus on Microscopy 2013, Maastricht, The Netherlands, March24–27, 2013.

Semicaps Lte Ptd, http://www.semicaps.com .

Ted Pella INC, http://www.tedpella.com .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

HC of (a) the “08” digital and (e) three-bar pattern using the ASIL-SM [24] with circular polarization and NAsil=3.3 for different pinhole radii. (b), (f) 1 μm, (c), (g) 25 μm, and (d), (h) 100 μm. For the “08” digital pattern, the horizontal and vertical dimensions are [0.7,0.7] and [0.55,0.55] for xsil(λ) and ysil(λ), respectively. For the three-bar pattern, the horizontal and vertical dimensions are [2.55,2.55] and [2.10,2.10] for xsil(λ) and ysil(λ), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Normalized intensity distribution in the detector region corresponding to a x-directed or z-directed dipole at the focal point of the ASIL. ρ is radial distance in cylindrical coordinates; r, r1, and r2 are the radii of pinhole sizes used in the scanning system. (b) Normalized intensity distribution in the focal region for different polarized beams. CPB, circular polarization beam; RPB-xy and RPB-z, transverse and longitudinal components of the RPB, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of ASIL-SM. OL, objective lens; DL, detector lens; BS, beam splitter; PH, pinhole.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Images of the “08” digital pattern using RPB and APB.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of the three-bar pattern using RPB and APB. An APB gives an image similar to (g) for RPH=25μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Same as Figs. 4 and 5 except the incidence is APV.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Exact pattern (a) and images of Monitorlines using (b) RPB with RPH=35μm, (c) APB with RPH=35μm, and (d) APV with RPH=25μm, respectively. The horizontal and vertical dimensions are [4.5,4.5] for xsil(μm) and ysil(μm).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized intensity distribution across the two white arrows in Fig. 7(a) for original pattern, RPB, APB, and APV.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(xccd,yccd)=iωμG¯¯·Il(xsil,ysil)dxsildysil.
I=0RPH02π|E(xccd,yccd)|2drccddϕ.

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