Abstract

A miniature catadioptric lens for endoscopic imaging based on the principle of wavelength division multiplexing is presented. We demonstrate change of the magnification and the field of view (FOV) of the lens without any mechanical adjustment of the optical elements. The lens provides magnifications of ∼−1.5× at 406–750 nm and ∼−0.2× at 800 nm. The lens is used to demonstrate large-FOV (1.3 mm) reflectance imaging and high-resolution (0.57 μm) multiphoton fluorescence imaging of unstained mouse tissues.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Xi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Murari, M. Li, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 37, 362 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Seibel and Q. Smithwick, Laser Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
  9. B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Lung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2272 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. Bao, J. Allen, R. Pattie, R. Vance, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 33, 1333 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Wu, J. Xi, M. Cobb, and X. D. Li, Opt. Lett. 34, 953 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).
  13. P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Myaing, D. McDonald, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 31, 1076 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. C. Wu, Y. X. Leng, J. F. Xi, and X. D. Li, Opt. Express 17, 7907 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).
  18. D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. J. Liu, T. Xie, I. Tomov, J. Su, L. Yu, J. Zhang, B. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 34, 2249 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. J. Engelbrecht, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Express 16, 5556 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Liang, K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. R. Descour, Appl. Opt. 41, 4603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. M. Landau, C. Liang, R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, and M. R. Descour, Opt. Express 18, 4758 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. L. Dickensheets and G. Kino, Opt. Lett. 21, 764 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Appl. Opt. 44, 1792 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. T. Kester, T. C. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, T. Christenson, and R. Richards-Kortum, Opt. Express 15, 2409 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Chen, C. Xu, and W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 35, 2735 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Ermolaeva, I. Livshits, and V. Vasiliyev, Proc. SPIE 8488, 848804 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. R. Shafer, Proc. SPIE 2539, 235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  31. E. Betensky, Proc. SPIE 3129, 90 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. A. Kara and J. Bergman, Endoscopy 38, 627 (2006).
  33. M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).
  34. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 48, 329 (1977).

2012 (5)

J. F. Xi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Murari, M. Li, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 37, 362 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Betensky, Proc. SPIE 3129, 90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ermolaeva, I. Livshits, and V. Vasiliyev, Proc. SPIE 8488, 848804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

2010 (3)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Landau, C. Liang, R. T. Kester, T. S. Tkaczyk, and M. R. Descour, Opt. Express 18, 4758 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, C. Xu, and W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 35, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

R. T. Kester, T. C. Tkaczyk, M. R. Descour, T. Christenson, and R. Richards-Kortum, Opt. Express 15, 2409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Myaing, D. McDonald, and X. Li, Opt. Lett. 31, 1076 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kara and J. Bergman, Endoscopy 38, 627 (2006).

2005 (4)

K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Appl. Opt. 44, 1792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Lung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

D. R. Shafer, Proc. SPIE 2539, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. R. Sheppard, Optik 48, 329 (1977).

Allen, J.

Anderson, E. P.

Bao, H. C.

Barretto, R.

R. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J.

M. A. Kara and J. Bergman, Endoscopy 38, 627 (2006).

Betensky, E.

E. Betensky, Proc. SPIE 3129, 90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D.

Brown, C.

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, K.

Chang, J.

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Cheung, E.

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chidley, M.

Christenson, T.

Chung, E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, M.

Cocker, E.

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cocker, E. D.

Cranfield, C.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M.

Descour, M. R.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Engelbrecht, C. J.

Ermolaeva, E.

E. Ermolaeva, I. Livshits, and V. Vasiliyev, Proc. SPIE 8488, 848804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Lung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, Opt. Lett. 30, 2272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

Fu, L.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fukumura, D.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A.

Goetz, M.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

H. C. Bao, J. Allen, R. Pattie, R. Vance, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 33, 1333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

D. Bird and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 28, 1552 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hung, K.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

Jain, R.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, R. S.

Jung, J.

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kara, M. A.

M. A. Kara and J. Bergman, Endoscopy 38, 627 (2006).

Kester, R. T.

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

Kobat, D.

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

Kucherlapati, R.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landau, S. M.

Leng, Y. X.

Li, M.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Liang, C.

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. J.

Livshits, I.

E. Ermolaeva, I. Livshits, and V. Vasiliyev, Proc. SPIE 8488, 848804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lung, J. C.

McDonald, D.

Messerschmidt, B.

R. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mizoguchi, A.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohanan, S.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murari, K.

Myaing, M.

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, J.

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

Pattie, R.

Pavlova, I.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rivera, D.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

Schnitzer, M.

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, M. J.

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seibel, E.

E. Seibel and Q. Smithwick, Laser Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

Seibel, E. J.

Shafer, D. R.

D. R. Shafer, Proc. SPIE 2539, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, J. R.

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

J. R. Sheppard, Optik 48, 329 (1977).

Smithwick, Q.

E. Seibel and Q. Smithwick, Laser Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

Sung, K.

Sung, K. B.

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tkaczyk, T. C.

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Tomov, I.

Tromberg, B.

Vance, R.

Vasiliyev, V.

E. Ermolaeva, I. Livshits, and V. Vasiliyev, Proc. SPIE 8488, 848804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

M. Chen, C. Xu, and W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 35, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, A.

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, W.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Y. C.

Xi, J.

Xi, J. F.

Xie, H. K.

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

Xie, T.

Xu, C.

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

M. Chen, C. Xu, and W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 35, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Yun, S.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, H.

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Endoscopy (1)

M. A. Kara and J. Bergman, Endoscopy 38, 627 (2006).

Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. (1)

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 15, 715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. K. Xie, and M. Gu, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 2756102 (2007).

C. M. Brown, D. Rivera, I. Pavlova, D. Ouzounov, W. Williams, S. Mohanan, W. Webb, and C. Xu, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 040505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

E. Seibel and Q. Smithwick, Laser Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (3)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. Jain, and S. Yun, Nat. Methods 7, 303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, E. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. Jung, E. Cheung, and M. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 6, 511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Optik (2)

M. Gu, J. R. Sheppard, and H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

J. R. Sheppard, Optik 48, 329 (1977).

Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D. Rivera, C. Brown, D. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. Webb, and C. Xu, Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598 (2011).

Proc. SPIE (4)

E. Ermolaeva, I. Livshits, and V. Vasiliyev, Proc. SPIE 8488, 848804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Shafer, Proc. SPIE 2539, 235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Shen, J. Chang, J. Ouyang, L. Zhang, and A. Wei, Proc. SPIE 8557, 85571C (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Betensky, Proc. SPIE 3129, 90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Lens design layout, drawn to scale. (b) Transmission spectrum of the patterned dichroic coating deposited on the proximal surface of element 2 (shown in the inset). The patterned structure of the coating is clearly seen. (c) Transmission spectrum of the dichroic coating deposited on the proximal surface of element 3 (shown in the inset). (d) 3D lens layout, indicating the positions of the plastic fibers for signal collection. (e) Photograph of the objective lens assembly.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Lens characterization and imaging setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated (red solid line) and measured (blue dashed line) lateral PSF for the high-resolution imaging mode. Inset: Group 9 of USAF resolution target imaged using the high-resolution imaging mode at 800 nm. Inset: Intensity line profile across the indicated feature and its derivative. (b) USAF resolution target imaged using the high-magnification mode (λi=800nm). (c) USAF resolution target imaged in transmission using the low-magnification mode (λi=406nm). (d) Axial scan of a thin Rhodamine B film showing the two-photon axial resolution (FWHM) of 10.5 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

High-magnification two-photon intrinsic fluorescence images of unstained ex vivo mouse (a) colon and (c) lung. Lung image is unaveraged; colon image is averaged over three frames. In (a), enterocytes (“e”), goblet cells (“g”), and crypts (“c”) are visible. In (c), alveolar walls (“w”) and lumens (“L”) are distinguishable. (b) Low-magnification reflection/scattering image of unstained mouse colon (b) and lung (d). All images are acquired at two frames per second. Average power at the sample during multiphoton imaging was 25mW. The white circles in (b) and (d) indicate the approximate location of the sites from which the multiphoton images shown in (a) and (c) are obtained.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Low-magnification reflection/scattering image of unstained mouse kidney. High-magnification two-photon intrinsic fluorescence and SHG image of unstained ex vivo mouse kidney (b) at the surface and (c) approximately 80 μm below the surface. In (b), the collagen fibers of the kidney capsule are well distinguishable. In (c), cuboidal epithelium (“CE”) and the renal interstitium (“RI”) are visible. The white circle in (a) indicates the approximate location of the site from which the multiphoton images shown in (b) and (c) is obtained.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Design Specifications for Miniature Zoom Objective

Tables Icon

Table 2. Lens Prescription and Tolerances for Design in Fig. 1a

Metrics