Abstract

Photorefractive (PR) surface waves (SWs) in self-defocusing LiNbO3:Fe are studied theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate that SWs can also be formed in a self-defocusing nonlinear medium and that the nonlocal nonlinearity (such as the diffusion component of PR nonlinearity in this Letter) is the essential cause. The forming process of PR SWs with a self-deflection course of light beams has been observed. The results indicate the possibility of concentrating light energy in self-defocusing media, taking advantage of SWs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2011

2010

2009

2007

Y. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 32, 2260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. Aleshkevich, V. Vysloukh, and Y. Kartashov, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt. 27, 229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Aceves, A.

Aleshkevich, V.

V. Aleshkevich, V. Vysloukh, and Y. Kartashov, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alfassi, B.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt. 27, 229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. I.

Chen, W. Q.

Christodoulides, D. N.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Crosignani, B.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DiPorto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eugenieva, E.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujihara, T.

Garcia Quirino, G. S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heatley, D. R.

Hu, Z. J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. Z.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, Opt. Lett. 35, 1605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kartashov, Y.

Y. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 32, 2260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Aleshkevich, V. Vysloukh, and Y. Kartashov, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. L.

Liu, H. Y.

Liu, S. M.

Lou, C. B.

Lu, Y. Z.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. H.

Ma, H. H.

Manela, O.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt. 27, 229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Muto, T.

Ren, X. K.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sassa, T.

Segev, M.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shao, W. W.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibilia, C.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt. 27, 229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Torner, L.

Umegaki, S.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Varatharajah, P.

Vysloukh, V.

Y. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 32, 2260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Aleshkevich, V. Vysloukh, and Y. Kartashov, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

Wang, B. H.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Xu, J. J.

Xu, Y. H.

Yan, Z.

Yang, D. P.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ye, F. W.

Zhang, T. H.

Zhong, S. Y.

J. Mod. Opt.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, J. Yang, H. Z. Kang, D. P. Yang, Y. Z. Lu, L. Feng, W. J. Wang, and J. J. Xu, J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1445 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

V. Aleshkevich, V. Vysloukh, and Y. Kartashov, Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt.

D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, Prog. Opt. 27, 229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 290, 495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Self-deflecting of the total internal reflection beam and the forming process of PR SWs at the c surface with an e-polarized beam. The incident angle α=84.4°. (a) the scheme of the experiment, (b) t=0min, (c) t=12s, (d) t=5min, (e) t=18min; (f) t=110min, and (g) t=191min.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Excitation of PR SWs from the shooting angle of looking down. (a) The image at the beginning, (b) at the end of the formation of PR SWs, (c) the reflected beam and PR SWs beam emitted from the output surface, and (d) the fine structure of (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modes of PR SWs for different propagation constants. (a) β=2.184×107m1, (b) β=2.176×107m1, and (c) fine structure for (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modes of PR SWs for different incident angle. (a) α=88.6°, (b) α=89.3°, and (a2) and (b2) are the fine structures for the rectangle in (a1) and (b1), respectively.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2E(x,z)+k2E(x,z)=0.
Esc(x)=kBTq·ddxln[I(x)+Id+Ib]Ep·I(x)I(x)+Id+Ib,
d2A(x)dx2+γA2(x)A2(x)+1·dA(x)dx+bA2(x)A2(x)+1A(x)+gA(x)=0,
bA2(x)A2(x)+1+k02n2>β2>k02n02.
K(x)k02n02β2+bA2(x)[A2(x)+Id].

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