Abstract

Plasmonic waveguides essentially support only transverse magnetic modes. A novel plasmonic waveguide consisting of hybrid plasmonic waveguides in both vertical and horizontal directions is proposed to reduce the polarization dependence. In a combined waveguide, surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes polarized in both vertical and horizontal directions exist in the correspondingly oriented hybrid plasmonic waveguide. In an optimized structure, anticrossing mode coupling is observed between these two SPP modes with a low birefringence by finite-difference time-domain simulation. The energy flux clearly shows the polarization-selective coupling between the polarized guided modes in the feeding silicon waveguide and those in the combined waveguide. Coupling efficiency above 65% is obtained for both polarizations. The proposed plasmonic combined waveguide has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and S. Anand, ChemPhysChem 5, 1268 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. H. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Opt. Express 20, 6124 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Raghunathan, C. H. Gan, T. van Dijk, B. E. Kim, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, P. Lalanne, and T. D. Visser, Opt. Express 20, 15326 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. H. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 016402 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, MRS Bull. 37, 728 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.
  12. J. W. Wang, X. W. Guan, Y. R. He, Y. C. Shi, Z. C. Wang, S. L. He, P. Holmstrom, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. X. Dai, Opt. Express 19, 838 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Index (Academic, 1991).
  15. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nano-Guides and Circuits, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), MWD3.
  16. J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, and G. Song, Opt. Lett. 36, 2312 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. T. Kim, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 1481 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. X. Dai and S. L. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. X. Dai and S. L. He, Opt. Express 18, 17958 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Z. H. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 016402 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Dai and S. L. He, Opt. Express 18, 17958 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Dai and S. L. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and S. Anand, ChemPhysChem 5, 1268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and S. Anand, ChemPhysChem 5, 1268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bai, W.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Z. H. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 016402 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. H. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Opt. Express 20, 6124 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nano-Guides and Circuits, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), MWD3.

Cai, L.

Chen, P.

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

Dai, D.

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

Dai, D. X.

Devaux, E.

Dragoman, D.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

Gan, C. H.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guan, X.

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

Guan, X. W.

Hakkarainen, T.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. H.

He, S. L.

He, Y. R.

Holmstrom, P.

Honkanen, S.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. E.

Kim, J. T.

J. T. Kim, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, MRS Bull. 37, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, MRS Bull. 37, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Index (Academic, 1991).

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and S. Anand, ChemPhysChem 5, 1268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, S. B.

Säynätjoki, A.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, H. F.

Shi, Y.

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

Shi, Y. C.

Song, G.

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, MRS Bull. 37, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

Ubachs, W.

van Dijk, T.

Visser, T. D.

Volkov, V. S.

Wang, J. W.

Wang, X.

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

Wang, Z. C.

Wosinski, L.

J. W. Wang, X. W. Guan, Y. R. He, Y. C. Shi, Z. C. Wang, S. L. He, P. Holmstrom, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. X. Dai, Opt. Express 19, 838 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

Xu, Y.

Zenin, V. A.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, MRS Bull. 37, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem

L. Thylen, M. Qiu, and S. Anand, ChemPhysChem 5, 1268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

J. T. Kim, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 1481 (2011).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, MRS Bull. 37, 728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanophotonics

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, Nanophotonics 1, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Prog. Quantum Electron.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

Z. H. Han and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Rep. Prog. Phys. 76, 016402 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Guan, P. Chen, X. Wang, L. Wosinski, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS2H.4.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids: Index (Academic, 1991).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nano-Guides and Circuits, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), MWD3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic cross section of the proposed plasmonic waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modal effective indexes at varying SiO2 thickness. The insets show the electric field profiles Ex of the guided mode 1 and Ey of the guide mode 2, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Real part and (b) the imaginary part of the modal effective index. (c) Propagation constant and (d) propagation length at varying Wp.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mode field distributions (a) and (d) at Wp=60nm, (b) and (e) 80 nm, and (c) and (f) 90 nm. (a)–(c) are for mode 1 and (d)–(f) are for mode 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Modal effective indexes for varies Si waveguide at different polarizations. (a) TM mode and (b) TE mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Electric field distributions for the direct coupling between an Si waveguide (390 nm height and 570 nm width) and a plasmonic combined waveguide at Hp=40nm and Wp=60nm. (a)–(d) Ey of a TM mode in the plane of x=0nm (the center of the Si core, side view) at (a) T1=27.3fs, (b) T2=91.0fs, (c) T3=109.2fs, and (d) T4=200.1fs; Ex of a TE mode in the plane of y=125nm (the center of the Si core, top view) at (e) T5=36.1fs, (f) T6=90.3fs, (g) T7=108.4fs, and (h) T8=189.7fs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Coupling efficiency shown as a function of the combined waveguide sidewall width.

Metrics