Abstract

Using conventional melt-quenching and subsequent thermal treatment, Er3+ doped CaF2 transparent glass ceramic (GC) was prepared. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation and microstructure of CaF2 nanocrystals in glass. An energy-dispersive spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution of Er3+ ions and CaF2 nanocrystals in glass. It was found that Er3+ ions prefer to concentrate in the CaF2 nanocrystals rather than in a glass matrix, and the amount of Er3+ ions plays a key role in the formation of CaF2 nanocrystals in a glass matrix with the Er3+ ions as nucleating agent. An intense 2.7 μm emission due to Er3+: I11/24I13/24 was achieved upon excitation at 980 nm with a laser diode, while the 2.7 μm emission can be neglected in the as-prepared glass counterpart, which confirmed the incorporation of Er3+ ions into CaF2 nanocrystals. An obvious enhancement of 2.7 μm emerged in the GC doped with 3% Er3+ and heat-treated at 620°C.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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Chen, D. Q.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and E. Ma, Mater. Chem. Phys. 101464 (2007).
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D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 264 (2006).
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Dai, S. X.

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
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B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 191, 315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

Dong, G. P.

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, Sci. Rep. 3, 1598 (2013).
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G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 19941 (2012).
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Fan, B.

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
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S. M. Shim, C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3092 (2010).
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Hu, L. L.

Hu, Z. J.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 264 (2006).
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Huber, G.

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 29, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 191, 315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

Jenssen, H. P.

Kanskar, M.

Kedlaya, D.

King, T. A.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 191, 315 (2001).
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S. M. Shim, C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3092 (2010).
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Li, R. H.

Lin, A. X.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, X. J. Xiu, and J. Heo, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 365, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Shim, C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3092 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

Ma, E.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and E. Ma, Mater. Chem. Phys. 101464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. L.

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
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Pollnau, M.

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 191, 315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, T. Jensen, G. Huber, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. A. McFarlane, Opt. Lett. 21, 48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, Sci. Rep. 3, 1598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 19941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, V. D.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, Opt. Mater. 28, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A.

Sanamyan, T.

Seddon, A. B.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, Opt. Mater. 28, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shim, S. M.

S. M. Shim, C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3092 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skorczakowski, M.

Swiderski, J.

Tian, Y.

Tikhomirov, V. K.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, Opt. Mater. 28, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toulouse, J.

Vallée, R.

Wang, J.

Wang, Y. S.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and E. Ma, Mater. Chem. Phys. 101464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

Xiao, Y.

Xiu, X. J.

C. Liu, X. J. Xiu, and J. Heo, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 365, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R. R.

Xu, Y. S.

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. M.

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, Sci. Rep. 3, 1598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 19941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. L.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and E. Ma, Mater. Chem. Phys. 101464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. Q.

Zajac, A.

Zhang, J. J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q. Y.

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, Sci. Rep. 3, 1598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 19941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Eichhorn, Appl. Phys. B 93, 269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. M. Shim, C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3092 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. Liu, X. J. Xiu, and J. Heo, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 365, 1 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

Y. S. Xu, X. H. Zhang, S. X. Dai, B. Fan, H. L. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. R. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 19941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, E. Ma, F. Bao, Z. J. Hu, and Y. Cheng, Mater. Chem. Phys. 95, 264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, and E. Ma, Mater. Chem. Phys. 101464 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. C. Dickinson, P. S. Golding, M. Pollnau, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 191, 315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Opt. Mater. (1)

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, Opt. Mater. 28, 1143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Q. Chai, G. P. Dong, J. R. Qiu, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, Sci. Rep. 3, 1598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a)–(c) XRD patterns of 1%, 3%, and 5% Er3+-doped glasses heated at different temperatures for 4 h. (d)–(f) RD patterns of Er3+-doped glasses heated at 580°C, 620°C, and 650°C for 4 h with different Er3+-doped concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) TEM, (b) EDS spectra of two points of GC sample in the figure (a), and (c) HRTEM image. (d) SAED pattern of 5% Er3+ doped GC sample heat-treated at 620°C for 4 h. (e)–(j) show the two-dimensional mapping distribution of Ca, F, Er, Si, Al, and O, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Absorption spectra of 3% Er3+-doped glasses heated at different temperatures for 4 h. (b), (c), and (d) Absorption spectra of Er3+-doped glasses heated at 580°C, 620°C, and 650°C for 4 h, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) PL spectra of 3% Er3+-doped glasses heated at different temperatures for 4 h under a 980 nm LD excitation. (b) Integrated intensity of 2.7 μm emission peaks from Er3+-doped glasses collected as a function of temperature and Er3+-doped concentrations.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Grain Size of Er3+:CaF2 Nanocrystals in Different Glass and GC Samples Calculated by the Scherrer Equation

Equations (1)

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τ=Kλβcosθ,

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