Abstract

Techniques to differentiate between materials are a powerful addition to the structural information traditionally available from optical coherence tomography images. We present label-free detection of water and lipid at a micrometer scale by evaluating their unique dispersion properties. Using a tri-band swept source configuration, we measure both β2 and β3 and show how to identify the two materials at sample thicknesses of 40 and 90 μm, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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1998

1994

C. Sáinz, P. Jourdain, R. Escalona, and J. Calatroni, Opt. Commun. 110, 381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

L. G. Cohen, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 958 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981

1963

J. E. Chamberlain, J. E. Gibbs, and H. A. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

Akkin, T.

Applegate, B. E.

Armstrong, J. J.

Bagherzadeh, S. M.

Boppart, S. A.

Bredfeldt, J. S.

Brezinski, M. E.

B. Liu, E. A. Macdonald, D. L. Stamper, and M. E. Brezinski, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calatroni, J.

C. Sáinz, P. Jourdain, R. Escalona, and J. Calatroni, Opt. Commun. 110, 381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. E.

J. E. Chamberlain, J. E. Gibbs, and H. A. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Clement, T. S.

Coen, S.

Cohen, L. G.

L. G. Cohen, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 958 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Diddams, S. A.

Drexler, W.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

Escalona, R.

C. Sáinz, P. Jourdain, R. Escalona, and J. Calatroni, Opt. Commun. 110, 381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R. O.

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gebbie, H. A.

J. E. Chamberlain, J. E. Gibbs, and H. A. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, J. E.

J. E. Chamberlain, J. E. Gibbs, and H. A. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, T. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jiang, Y.

Jourdain, P.

C. Sáinz, P. Jourdain, R. Escalona, and J. Calatroni, Opt. Commun. 110, 381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczky, A.

Larin, K. V.

Lehareinger, Y.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leonhardt, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lippok, N.

Littman, M. G.

Liu, B.

B. Liu, E. A. Macdonald, D. L. Stamper, and M. E. Brezinski, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

Macdonald, E. A.

B. Liu, E. A. Macdonald, D. L. Stamper, and M. E. Brezinski, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

Milner, T. E.

Motamedi, M.

Nielsen, P.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Sáinz, C.

C. Sáinz, P. Jourdain, R. Escalona, and J. Calatroni, Opt. Commun. 110, 381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Schmitt, J.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seemann, V.

Stamper, D. L.

B. Liu, E. A. Macdonald, D. L. Stamper, and M. E. Brezinski, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I.

Van Engen, A. G.

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Vinegoni, C.

Wang, Y.

Wax, A.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S. H.

Yang, C.

Yung, K. M.

Appl. Opt.

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol.

L. G. Cohen, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 958 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

J. E. Chamberlain, J. E. Gibbs, and H. A. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Sáinz, P. Jourdain, R. Escalona, and J. Calatroni, Opt. Commun. 110, 381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

B. Liu, E. A. Macdonald, D. L. Stamper, and M. E. Brezinski, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Walk-off, |Δz|, as a function of spectral separation and sample dispersion. The white dashed-dotted line shows the recommended bandwidth. (b) Solution for walk-off |Δz|=0.5μm, PSF broadening δz=0.5μm, and broadening factor f=2. Graphs obtained for ls=100μm and λ0=1.3μm. The y axis labels apply to both graphs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical spectra for the three swept sources. (b) Interference signals for the three swept sources acquired with two digitization channels and using a mirror as a sample. λ0b was delayed with respect to λ0c to allow a single digitization channel for both sources. (c) Tri-band swept source configuration and interferometric setup. G, grating; PM, polygon mirror; SAF, single-angle-facet semiconductor gain chip; FR, 10% facet reflection; ISO, isolator; PC, polarization controller; WDM, wavelength division multiplexing; L, lens; M, mirror; FC, fiber coupler; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; BS, 50/50 beam splitter; ND, neutral-density filter; PD, photodetector; S1,2, two different sample positions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Walk-off for different sample thicknesses, ls. (b) Calculated group-velocity dispersion for each sample thickness (β21050,1550 at 1.25 μm). The blue data represent water, the red data represent lipid, and the black data represent glass.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Averaged β2 for the three spectral regions. (b) Calculated third-order dispersion for each sample thickness (at 1.29 μm). The blue data represent water, the red data represent lipid, and the black data represent glass.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) We present the A-scan of different materials, using the swept sources centered at 1050 nm (black line) and 1550 nm (red line). The calculated group-velocity dispersion (at 1.25 μm) is shown between material boundaries (blue curve). Insets, magnified depth regions. (b) Generated dispersion map at 1.25 μm for visualization of each material.

Equations (2)

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β2ij=1lscΔzijΔωijn¯gzicΔzijΔωij,
β3=2(β2abβ2bc)Δωac2n¯gzbcΔωac(ΔzabΔωabΔzbcΔωbc),

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