Abstract

A kinetic model describing the conversion of a photochromic layer under complex illumination conditions is applied to absorbance-modulation optical lithography to determine the influence of the material characteristics on the confinement to subdiffraction dimensions of the transmitted dose. We show that the most important parameters are the intensity ratio between the confining and writing beams, the overall absorption at the writing wavelength, the relative absorption coefficients, and the photoreaction quantum yields at the two wavelengths. As the confining beam ultimately determines the transferred dose pattern, we conclude that the modulation of the writing beam is not strictly necessary to produce subwavelength apertures.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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