Abstract

An ultracompact polarization beam splitter (PBS) is proposed based on an asymmetrical directional coupler consisting of a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW) and a silicon nanowire. The widths of the two coupling waveguides are chosen so that the phase-matching condition is satisfied for TE polarization only while the phase mismatch is significant for TM polarization. A sharply bent silicon HPW is connected at the thru port to play the role of polarizer by utilizing its polarization-dependent loss. With the present principle, the designed PBS has a footprint as small as only 1.9μm×3.7μm, which is the shortest PBS reported until now, even when large waveguide dimensions (e.g., the waveguide widths w1,2=300nm and the gap width wgap=200nm) are chosen to simplify the fabrication process. The numerical simulations show that the designed PBS has a very broad band (120nm) with an extinction ratio >12dB and a large fabrication tolerance to allow a waveguide width variation of ±30nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9421 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Liang, Y. Tang, D. Dai, and J. Bowers, Opt. Lett. 38, 4 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Dai and S. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, Opt. Express 17, 9421 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, and H. Nakano, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3528 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng and Z. Zhou, Opt. Lett. 32, 1662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Ao, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ang, S. S. N.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ao, X.

X. Ao, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aono, H.

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

Chee, J.

Chen, S.

Chew, A. B.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, A.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Feng, J.

Gao, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Groen, F. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, Opt. Express 19, 23671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Ao, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, C.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasarova, S.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katigbak, A.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Ao, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Lou, F.

Ma, Y.

Mataloni, P.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mei, T.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Metaal, E. G.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

Nikolov, I.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sansoni, L.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, Opt. Express 19, 23671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Shin, S.

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strother, J. F.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sultanova, N.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Teng, J.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vallone, G.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vreede, A. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

D. Dai, Z. Wang, and J. Bowers, Opt. Lett. 36, 2590 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

F. Lou, D. Dai, and L. Wosinski, Opt. Lett. 37, 3372 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, Opt. Express 19, 23671 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ao, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, J.

Yamazaki, T.

Yang, B.

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Zhang, D.

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Ao, L. Liu, L. Wosinski, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1568 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, and F. H. Groen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 393 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, S. Shin, and D. Zhang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 432 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Tu, S. S. N. Ang, A. B. Chew, J. Teng, and T. Mei, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1324 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. Xiao, X. Liu, and X. Sun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3748 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D. Xu, and S. He, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 303 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. Katigbak, J. F. Strother, and J. Lin, Opt. Eng. 48, 080503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

S. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, Opt. Mater. 29, 1481 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of the proposed PBS. The cross section is in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective indices of the TE0 and TM0 modes in silicon NWs and silicon HPWs. On the right are the electrical field profiles of the major component for TE0 and TM0 modes in the two types of waveguides, when the widths of the HPW and the NW are w1=310nm and w2=280nm, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission of a 90° bent silicon HPW for TM and TE polarizations. Here, w1=310nm and the wavelength is 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Total transmission and the transmissions at the cross and thru ports as the coupling region length Lc varies. (a) TE and (b) TM. Here, w1=310nm, w2=280nm, and wgap=200nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light propagation in the designed PBS with wgap=200nm, Lc=2.2μm, and R=1.3μm. (a) TE and (b) TM. Here, w1=310nm, w2=280nm, and the wavelength is 1550 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength dependence of the designed PBS. (a) TE and (b) TM.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fabrication tolerance when the designed PBS has a width variation Δw. (a) TE and (b) TM.

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