Abstract

We report a rapid time-gated full Stokes imaging approach without mechanically moving parts, which is well-suited for biomedical applications, using two photoelastic modulators (PEMs). A charge-coupled device (CCD) with microsecond time-gating capability was used to acquire the images. To synchronize the CCD with the PEMs, thus gaining signal-to-noise ratio advantage, a field programmable gate array was employed. After calibration, an evolutionary algorithm was used to select four time points from which the full Stokes vector can be recovered. Using the images taken by the camera at these four times (in 80ms), the images of the full Stokes vectors of different incident polarization states were accurately derived.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, B. E. Fladmark, P. A. Letnes, and M. Kildemo, Opt. Express 21, 8753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

M. F. G. Wood, X. Guo, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo, Opt. Lett. 25, 1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, Opt. Eng. 34, 1656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Aas, L. M. S.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, B. E. Fladmark, P. A. Letnes, and M. Kildemo, Opt. Express 21, 8753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, M.

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alali, S.

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Massoumian, S. Alali, and T. Mansouri, Opt. Lett. 34, 67 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Alali and I. A. Vitkin, “Optimization of rapid Mueller matrix imaging of turbid media using four photoelastic modulators without mechanically moving parts,” Opt. Eng., submitted for publication.

Ambirajan, A.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, Opt. Eng. 34, 1656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, M. R.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arteaga, O.

Benali, A.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J. R.

Bull, M.

Chao, Y. F.

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Compain, E.

Davis, A.

De Martino, A.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DeHoog, E.

Dereniak, E. L.

Diner, D. J.

Drévillon, B.

Ellingsen, P. G.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, B. E. Fladmark, P. A. Letnes, and M. Kildemo, Opt. Express 21, 8753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

Fallet, C.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fladmark, B. E.

Freudenthal, J.

Fry, E. S.

Gayet, B.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Geier, S.

Guo, X.

M. F. G. Wood, X. Guo, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, N.

Han, C. Y.

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, B.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

Jovanovic, V.

Kahr, B.

Kildemo, M.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, B. E. Fladmark, P. A. Letnes, and M. Kildemo, Opt. Express 21, 8753 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. A.

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kudenov, M.

Kudenov, M. W.

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Letnes, P. A.

Lindgren, M.

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, Opt. Eng. 34, 1656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

Mahler, A. B.

Manhas, S.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mansouri, T.

Massoumian, F.

McClain, S. C.

Modine, F. A.

Novikova, T.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oka, K.

Pierangelo, A.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Poirier, S.

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rheingans, B.

Rider, D. M.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schiewgerling, J.

Thompson, R. C.

Totobenazara, J. L.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2007).

Twietmeyer, K. M.

Tyo, J. S.

Validire, P.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, I. A.

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. F. G. Wood, X. Guo, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Alali and I. A. Vitkin, “Optimization of rapid Mueller matrix imaging of turbid media using four photoelastic modulators without mechanically moving parts,” Opt. Eng., submitted for publication.

Vurgun, N.

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. F.

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. F. G.

M. F. G. Wood, X. Guo, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

S. Alali, M. Ahmad, M. A. Kim, N. Vurgun, M. F. Wood, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 045004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 046014 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. F. G. Wood, X. Guo, and I. A. Vitkin, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, J. Mod. Opt. 57, 1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, Opt. Eng. 34, 1656 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2007).

S. Alali and I. A. Vitkin, “Optimization of rapid Mueller matrix imaging of turbid media using four photoelastic modulators without mechanically moving parts,” Opt. Eng., submitted for publication.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (8695 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (8690 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time-gated PEM Stokes imaging with two PEMs. The linear polarizer P1 and the removable quarter-wave plate (QWP) change the incident light polarization on the sample. PEM1 and PEM2 and linear polarizer P2 constitute the PSA. The FPGA provides the external trigger for the CCD from the reference frequencies of the two PEMs. L1 and L2 are lenses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Trigger pulse is generated by FPGA when rising edge and falling edge of the PEMs are within 60 ns. At the rising edge of the trigger, the PEMs have a phase difference of ϕo. (b) CCD gates the incoming intensity for τ=0.5μs in each exposure n. Gating times for consequent images are programmed to be delayed with multiples of dt=0.5μs with respect to the trigger. to is a short unwanted electronic delay of the CCD with respect to the trigger. Acquiring each image takes 20 ms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental image sequence over 500 μs (one period) acquired by the CCD, using FPGA assisted sequential time gating, when the incident light is (a) linearly polarized at 45° (Media 1), (b) right circularly polarized (Media 2). (c) Mean value of 10 central pixels in (a) over 250 μs shown in black, and the simulation from Eqs. (2)–(6) when Sin is linearly polarized at 45° plotted in red. We also illustrate how the entire signal is sampled sequentially (only three consequent gating times shown, each 0.5 μs), as suggested by Fig. 2. (d) Analogous figure for right circularly polarized incidence from the 10 central pixels of the time-varying image of (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimentally recovered images of the Stokes elements from four different incident polarizations (no sample in Fig. 1). The rows I, Q, U, and V indicate the resulting Stokes vector element images (120×120 pixels).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Stokes images of light transmitted through a 1.2 mm thick frozen chicken breast with 0° linear polarization illumination. Polarization degree of (b) incident linearly polarized beam and (c) Stokes vector after interacting with the chicken breast slab in (a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimum t1,,t4 in Microseconds Derived from EA, and the Corresponding Condition Number κ(A)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δi(t)=δosin(2π×fit+φi),
Sout(t)=(I(t)Q(t)U(t)V(t))=MP2MPEM2(t)MPEM1(t)Sin,
I(tk)=[a1(tk)a2(tk)a3(tk)a4(tk)]Sin.
(I(t1)I(t4))=ASIn=[a1(t1)a2(t1)a3(t1)a4(t1)a1(t2)a2(t2)a3(t2)a4(t2)a1(t3)a2(t3)a3(t3)a3(t3)a1(t4)a2(t4)a3(t4)a4(t4)]SIn.
SinA1(I(t1)I(t4)).
δ1(t)=3.142sin(2π×20.07×103(t+to)+φo),δ2(t)=3.142sin(2π×42.06×103(t+to)).

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