Abstract

We have measured the intrinsic and 532 nm-induced optical absorption of 5 mol. % MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals at 488 nm wavelength. The measurements have been conducted employing a photothermal common-path interferometer. The absorption at 488 nm increases on simultaneous illumination with 532 nm light. This induced absorption rises linearly with the stimulating 532 nm radiation power and saturates for intensities larger than 50kW/cm2. A model developed recently, considering the excitation of electrons from levels near the valence band into iron centers, is applied to explain the observations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. A 37, 191 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Luedtke, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 026603 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).
  12. C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. A. Arsenev and B. A. Baranov, Phys. Status Solidi 9, 673 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, R667 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

F. Luedtke, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 026603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, R667 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. A 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. A. Arsenev and B. A. Baranov, Phys. Status Solidi 9, 673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrovski, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U. L.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arsenev, P. A.

P. A. Arsenev and B. A. Baranov, Phys. Status Solidi 9, 673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Baranov, B. A.

P. A. Arsenev and B. A. Baranov, Phys. Status Solidi 9, 673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, D. A.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Luedtke, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 026603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conradi, D.

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corradi, G.

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Salvo, R.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elser, D.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fieberg, S.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Foulon, G.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fürst, J. U.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. A 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gerson, R.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, G.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, T.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haertle, D.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, J.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Herth, P.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imlau, M.

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kratzig, E.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kühnemann, F.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luedtke, F.

F. Luedtke, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 026603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Markosyan, A.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).

Marquardt, Ch.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Merschjann, C.

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Route, R.

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).

Route, R. K.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaniel, D.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, R667 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schoke, B.

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B.

F. Luedtke, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 026603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tomaschke, H. E.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Waasem, N.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. A 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Woike, T.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. A 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, A. Alexandrovski, R. K. Route, M. M. Fejer, and G. Foulon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1970 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1663 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, D. Conradi, M. Imlau, G. Corradi, and K. Polgar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 015906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, R667 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Kratzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Luedtke, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 026603 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 113901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

P. A. Arsenev and B. A. Baranov, Phys. Status Solidi 9, 673 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Alexandrovski, M. Fejer, A. Markosyan, and R. Route, Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930D (2009).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

N. Waasem, S. Fieberg, J. Hauser, G. Gomes, D. Haertle, F. Kühnemann, and K. Buse, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical measurement of the absorption coefficient at 488 nm wavelength with and without additional 532 nm illumination.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Yamaju Ceramics sample: the induced absorption coefficient change at 488 nm versus intensity of the pump beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the induced absorption for two MgCLN crystals. The test and pump beams are ordinarily polarized.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption coefficient versus 488 nm test-beam intensity. Squares, without 532 nm illumination (intrinsic absorption); circles, in the presence of 532 nm illumination of 22kW/cm2 (intrinsic and induced absorption), CTI sample.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic description of the suggested band structure: electrons from localized levels X can be excited into Fe3+ states under 532 nm illumination, leading to higher absorption at 488 nm.

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