Abstract

Recently, intensive research has been conducted to accelerate the development of photoacoustic (PA) imaging modality for biomedical applications. The use of acoustic lenses to collect ultrasound signals is of great interest. This Letter presents the design and fabrication of a liquid acoustic diverging lens, which can enlarge the acceptance angle of an ultrasound transducer. This lens possesses an inherent advantage of low acoustic impedance and the convenience to be attached to or detached from a commercial flat transducer. Phantom experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the improvement of using such a liquid lens over using a bare transducer for PA tomography.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (4)

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 173702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, L. Xiang, M. S. Jiang, J. Yang, Q. Zhang, P. R. Carney, and H. Jiang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Tan, W. K. Loke, and N. T. Nguyen, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151, 133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. Li, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 78, 021901 (2008).

X. Wang, D. L. Chamberland, and G. Xi, J. Neurosci. Methods 168, 412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, and M. Frenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 846 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Beard, P.

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. R.

Chamberland, D. L.

X. Wang, D. L. Chamberland, and G. Xi, J. Neurosci. Methods 168, 412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C.-P.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-Y.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conjusteau, A.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

Ermilov, S. A.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, and M. Frenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 846 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grobmyer, S.

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grobmyer, S. R.

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Heijblom, M.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Hespen, J. C. G. v.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Hoelen, C. G. A.

Hu, S.

Jaeger, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, and M. Frenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 846 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jaw, F.-S.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, L.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, Sci. Rep.3 (2013).

Jiang, H.

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 173702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, L. Xiang, M. S. Jiang, J. Yang, Q. Zhang, P. R. Carney, and H. Jiang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, Sci. Rep.3 (2013).

Jiang, M. S.

Justis, N.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khamapirad, T.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kharine, A.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

C. Li, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 78, 021901 (2008).

Lacewell, R.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H.-Y.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leeuwen, T. G. v.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Leonard, M. H.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 78, 021901 (2008).

Li, M.-L.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

L. Xi, X. Li, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 173702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.-D.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-T.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-C.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loke, W. K.

H. Y. Tan, W. K. Loke, and N. T. Nguyen, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151, 133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, S.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Maslov, K.

Mehta, K.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

H. Y. Tan, W. K. Loke, and N. T. Nguyen, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151, 133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niederhauser, J. J.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, and M. Frenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 846 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piras, D.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Prins, C.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.-Y. I.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Tan, H. Y.

H. Y. Tan, W. K. Loke, and N. T. Nguyen, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151, 133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, S.

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Hespen, J. C. G.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veldhoven, S. v.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Wang, B.

Wang, L. V.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 78, 021901 (2008).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, D. L. Chamberland, and G. Xi, J. Neurosci. Methods 168, 412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xi, G.

X. Wang, D. L. Chamberland, and G. Xi, J. Neurosci. Methods 168, 412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xi, L.

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 173702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Xia, W.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

Xiang, L.

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yang, L.

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Yao, L.

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, G.

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, and M. Frenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 846 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, X. Li, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 173702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Xi, L. Zhou, and H. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Interface Focus (1)

P. Beard, Interface Focus 1, 602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ermilov, T. Khamapirad, A. Conjusteau, M. H. Leonard, R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, T. Miller, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

X. Wang, D. L. Chamberland, and G. Xi, J. Neurosci. Methods 168, 412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. Xi, X. Li, L. Yao, S. Grobmyer, and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 39, 2584 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, Nat. Methods 7, 603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

NeuroImage (1)

L.-D. Liao, M.-L. Li, H.-Y. Lai, Y.-Y. I. Shih, Y.-C. Lo, S. Tsang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-T. Lin, F.-S. Jaw, and Y.-Y. Chen, NeuroImage 52, 562 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C. Li, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 78, 021901 (2008).

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

H. Y. Tan, W. K. Loke, and N. T. Nguyen, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151, 133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. Heijblom, J. C. G. v. Hespen, S. v. Veldhoven, C. Prins, W. Steenbergen, T. G. v. Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, in Novel Biophotonic Techniques and Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. 80900L.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, Sci. Rep.3 (2013).

L. Xi, S. R. Grobmyer, G. Zhou, W. Qian, L. Yang, and H. Jiang, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents,” J. Biophoton. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication process. (a) Lens mold is built by a 3D printer, (b) PDMS is poured into the mold and cured at a temperature of 80°C, (c) piece of membrane (PDMS) is bonded and seals the lens chamber, (d) liquid is infused into the chamber through the holes to shape the curved lens interface, (e) holder, which is also made by a 3D printer, mounts the lens as well as the transducer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic setup for testing the performance of the liquid lens, (b) acoustic pressure distribution of the transducer with and without the liquid lens, (c) photograph of the prototype of the liquid lens mounted on the holder.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PAT of pencil leads. Seven pencil leads (0.7 mm diameter) are aligned along the radial direction with the rightmost one located at the center of the scanning. (a) Imaging without liquid lens, (b) imaging with liquid lens, (c) intensity profile along the tangential direction of the pencil lead with black arrow pointed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results of phantom experiments. A target (no. 1) is placed close to the center for reference. The no. 2 target is located in the same plane of no. 1 but with a distance of 11 mm from the center. The no. 3 target is lifted up to have a vertical distance of 10 mm from the center. All the targets have the same diameter of 4 mm. (a) Imaging without lens, (b) imaging with lens, (c) tangential profile of the no. 2 target, (d) tangential profile of the no. 3 target, (e) radial profile of the no. 2 target, (f) radial profile of the no. 3 target.

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