Abstract

An intensity-based highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) fiber loop mirror (FLM) sensor is proposed which uses a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) fiber coupler. The effect of integrating the WDM coupler in a FLM configuration is first studied. A section of Hi-Bi (bow-tie) fiber of length 0.26 m is then placed in the fiber loop, making the spectral response of the device simultaneously dependent on the Hi-Bi fiber section and WDM coupler characteristics. When strain is applied to the sensing head, the spectral signal is modulated in amplitude, in contrast with the conventional Hi-Bi FLM sensors in which there are wavelength shifts. The sensor was characterized in strain and a sensitivity of (2.2±0.4)×103με1 for a range of 300 με was attained. The self-referenced character of the sensor is noted.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Félix, D. Salazar, J. Castro, and H. Márquez, Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 187 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Bo, Z. Qida, L. Feng, G. Tuan, X. Lifang, L. Shuhong, and G. Hong, Appl. Opt. 45, 7767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1999

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. A. Wallace, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, Appl. Opt. 47, 2520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bo, D.

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. A. Wallace, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

M. Félix, D. Salazar, J. Castro, and H. Márquez, Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 187 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Félix, M.

M. Félix, D. Salazar, J. Castro, and H. Márquez, Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 187 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

Feng, X.

Frazão, O.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, Appl. Opt. 47, 2520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmes-Smith, A. S.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. A. Wallace, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, G.

Kai, G.

Latifi, H.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Layeghi, A.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lifang, X.

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Lobo Ribeiro, A. B.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marques, L. M.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

M. Félix, D. Salazar, J. Castro, and H. Márquez, Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 187 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monzon, D.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mortimore, D.

D. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Qida, Z.

Rosa, E. De La

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

Salazar, D.

M. Félix, D. Salazar, J. Castro, and H. Márquez, Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 187 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, Appl. Opt. 47, 2520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S.

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuhong, L.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silva, R. M.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Starodumov, A. N.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuan, G.

Wallace, P. A. A.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. A. Wallace, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

Zenteno, L. A.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zheng, G.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. A. Wallace, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Zibaii, M. I.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De La Rosa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

M. Félix, D. Salazar, J. Castro, and H. Márquez, Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 187 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. M. Silva, A. Layeghi, M. I. Zibaii, H. Latifi, J. L. Santos, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and O. Frazão, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, L. M. Marques, S. Santos, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. A. Wallace, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Light is launched into port 1 and measured at ports 3 and 4. After forming a FLM, the transmissivity was measured at port 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FLM sensor with WDM, Hi-Bi fiber section, and a polarization controller.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral response of the sensing configuration.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmissivity of the FLM configuration as a function of the wavelength. Different color lines correspond to a difference in applied strain. From black to pink there is a gradual increase of strain with increments of about 25 με.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Response of the sensing head at 1557 nm and the referenced signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength shift of the transmissivity minimum at 1359 nm as a function of applied strain.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E3=E1cosκz,E4=iE1sinκz,
P3=P1cos2κz,P4=P1sin2κz.
E2=E1[cos2κz+(isinκz)2]=E1cos(2κz),
P2=P1cos22κz.

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