Abstract

An optical fast scan delay exploiting the near-collinear interaction between a train of ultrashort optical pulses and an acoustic wave propagating in a birefringent crystal is introduced. In combination with a femtosecond Er:fiber laser, the scheme is shown to delay few femtosecond pulses by up to 6 ps with a precision of 15 as. A resolution of 5 fs is obtained for a single sweep at a repetition rate of 34 kHz. This value can be improved to 39 as for multiple scans at a total rate of 0.3 kHz.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Fujimoto, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Mukamel, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

Anappara, A. A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Ashida, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Beigang, R.

Biasiol, G.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

Ciuti, C.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Liberato, S.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

Eggert, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellrich, F.

Fujimoto, J.

J. Fujimoto, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gebs, R.

George, S.

Goiran, M.

Günter, G.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hees, J.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hellerer, T.

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F.

Hsieh, Y.-D.

Huber, R.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 32, 3504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Janke, C.

Jewariya, M.

Kawamoto, K.

Keilmann, F.

Klatt, G.

Krauss, G.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kray, S.

Kurz, H.

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 32, 3504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Léotin, J.

Lohss, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, E.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Molter, D.

Mukamel, S.

S. Mukamel, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, Y.

Scheu, R.

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 32, 3504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sorba, L.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sotier, F.

Spöler, F.

Tournois, P.

P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weinland, T.

Yasui, T.

Zhu, Q.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Mukamel, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. Fujimoto, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photonics 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Tournois, Opt. Commun. 140, 245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Chergui, A. Taylor, S. Cundiff, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and K. Yamagouchi, eds., Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, EPJ Web of Conferences, Lausanne, Switzerland, July 8–13 2013, Vol. 41.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of operation of the acousto-optical fast scan delay: for laser pulses (red) entering a birefringent crystal (1), a propagating acoustic wave (blue) appears as a quasi-stationary modulation of the refractive index. Acousto-optic interaction rotates the polarization of the optical pulse by 90°, from the ordinary to the extraordinary axis (2). While the diffracted pulse proceeds at speed c/ne, the velocity of the nondiffracted pulse amounts to c/no, leading to a time delay Δti (3). Subsequent optical pulses from a high-repetition-rate laser system catch up with the propagating acoustic wave at different positions xi, thus imposing different optical delays Δti [(i)–(iii)].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Acousto-optic fast scan delay incorporated in a femtosecond Er:fiber-amplifier system. Seed pulses from an Er:fiber oscillator are split into two branches, one of which is acousto-optically delayed. In experiment 1, we combine pulse trains A and B after amplification with a beam splitter (BS), filter them spectrally (F), and superpose them on a photodiode (PD). In experiment 2, we characterize pulses compressed in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) via a nonlinear autocorrelator, exploiting two-photon absorption and an interferometer with a moveable mirror (x). Electronic synchronization signals are derived directly from the oscillator pulse train and processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Linear cross-correlation between two spectrally degenerate pulse trains (λ0=1560nm, Δλ=12nm), as recorded with one laser shot per data point (acquisition time: 29 μs). (b) Close-up with improved time resolution. Green circles indicate the scan from (a), gray dots correspond to data obtained from 128 consecutive, time-offset scans (148,000 data points, acquisition time: 4 ms), red line: fit of sine function to data. (c) Zoom into data from (b), σj is the rms jitter. (d) Long-term drift of the delay time leading to an rms deviation of σd=0.8fs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Compatibility test of the acousto-optic fast-scan delay with 8 fs pulses. Duration of pulses derived from a highly nonlinear optical fiber as a function of delay position, as extracted from nonlinear auto-correlation traces assuming a Gaussian pulse shape (red line). The gray area indicates dead time, associated with launching a new acoustic wave. Insets: typical auto-correlation traces for two different delay positions (arrows) of the fast scan delay at the start and the end of the scan, respectively.

Equations (2)

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ti=(neno)×(Lxi)/c,
Δt=(neno)×(vsound/c)×frep1.

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