Abstract

Speckle reduction of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images helps the diagnosis of ocular diseases. In this Letter, we present a speckle reduction method based on shrinkage in the contourlet domain for retinal OCT images. The algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of the wavelet shrinkage method, which lacks directionality and anisotropy. The trade-off between speckle reduction and edge preservation is controlled by a single adjustable parameter, which determines the threshold in the contourlet domain. Results show substantial reduction of speckle noise and enhanced visualization of layer structures as demonstrated in the image of the central fovea region of the human retina. It is expected to be utilized in a wide range of biomedical imaging applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. R. Coifman and D. L. Donoho, Translation Invariant Denoising (Springer, 1995).

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. S. Schuman, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 17, 3978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jian, Z. Yu, L. Yu, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, Opt. Lett. 34, 1516 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mishra, A. Wong, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, Opt. Express 17, 23719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

D. D. Y. Po and M. N. Do, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 1610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. N. Do and M. Vetterli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 2091 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candès, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Apostolopoulos, M.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araie, M.

Bizheva, K.

Borsdorf, A.

Candès, E. J.

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candès, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chitchian, S.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clausi, D. A.

Coifman, R. R.

R. R. Coifman and D. L. Donoho, Translation Invariant Denoising (Springer, 1995).

de Keyser, P.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dhaenens, F.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Do, M. N.

D. D. Y. Po and M. N. Do, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 1610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Do and M. Vetterli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 2091 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donoho, D. L.

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candès, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Coifman and D. L. Donoho, Translation Invariant Denoising (Springer, 1995).

Drexler, W.

Fiddy, M. A.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fried, N. M.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. S. Schuman, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 17, 3978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 2878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fukuma, Y.

Georgopoulos, G.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hangai, M.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hood, D. C.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huysmans, B.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Z.

Johnstone, I. M.

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jovanov, L.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Koutsandrea, C.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mallat, S.

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic, 1998).

Mardin, C. Y.

Mayer, M. A.

Mishra, A.

Moschos, M.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papaconstantinou, D.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Philips, W.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pižurica, A.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Po, D. D. Y.

D. D. Y. Po and M. N. Do, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 1610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puvanathasan, P.

Rao, B.

Raza, A. S.

Reisman, C. A.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

J. G. Fujimoto, W. Drexler, J. S. Schuman, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 17, 3978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Starck, J.-L.

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candès, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taliantzis, S.

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomidokoro, A.

Tornow, R. P.

Tromberg, B. J.

Vetterli, M.

M. N. Do and M. Vetterli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 2091 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, M.

Wang, Z.

Wong, A.

Xiang, S.

J. M. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Yoshimura, N.

Yu, L.

Yu, Z.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zlokolica, V.

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Taliantzis, D. Papaconstantinou, C. Koutsandrea, M. Moschos, M. Apostolopoulos, and G. Georgopoulos, Clin. Ophthalmol. 3, 373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. (1)

A. Pižurica, L. Jovanov, B. Huysmans, V. Zlokolica, P. de Keyser, F. Dhaenens, and W. Philips, Curr. Med. Imaging Rev. 4, 270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (3)

M. N. Do and M. Vetterli, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14, 2091 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Y. Po and M. N. Do, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15, 1610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candès, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Stat. Assoc. (1)

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. M. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. R. Coifman and D. L. Donoho, Translation Invariant Denoising (Springer, 1995).

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional images of the central fovea region of the human retina. (a) Original noisy image, (b) image after wavelet-based speckle reduction, and (c) image after contourlet-based speckle reduction. For direct comparison, images are shown on the same color scale. ILM/NFL, inner limiting membrane/nerve fiber layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; ELM, external limiting membrane; IS/OS, junction between the inner and outer segment of the photoreceptors; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium; CH/SC junction between the choroid and sclera. The scale bar represents 200 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Enlarged view of the pink ROI in the original noisy image, (b) enlarged view of the pink ROI processed by wavelet shrinkage, and (c) enlarged view of the pink ROI processed by contourlet shrinkage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CNR and edge preservation parameter β as a function of different threshold K.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Image Quality Metrics

Equations (3)

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Y=S+E.
Yi,j,x,y=Si,j,x,y+Ei,j,x,y,
Yi,j,x,y={Yi,j,x,y0if|Yi,j,x,y|Ti,jotherwise,

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