Abstract

We demonstrate a high-performance solution-processed polymer photodetector (PPD) whose detectivity (D*) exceeds 1011 Jones over almost the entire range of visible light. PPDs processed from a chlorobenzene solution using 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as an additive exhibit large crystalline domains with long-range order, in contrast to the featureless morphology of PPDs processed with pure solvent. Moreover, PPDs processed with DIO exhibit higher charge carrier mobility, and thus high photoconductive gain without compromising long carrier lifetime. Consequently, a high-loading ratio of DIO (3%) yielded a PPD whose D* in the visible range was over threefold higher than that of PPD without DIO.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. E. Coates, S. Valouch, and D. Moses, Adv Funct. Mater. 21, 927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, Proc. IEEE 97, 1666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao and F. A. Hegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. H. Campbell and B. K. Crone, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell and B. K. Crone, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, N. S.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chung, D. S.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N. E.

G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. E. Coates, S. Valouch, and D. Moses, Adv Funct. Mater. 21, 927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crone, B. K.

I. H. Campbell and B. K. Crone, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

S. Donati, Photodetectors (Prentice-Hall. 2000).

Gao, J.

J. Gao and F. A. Hegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

J. Gao and F. A. Hegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Sosa, G.

G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. E. Coates, S. Valouch, and D. Moses, Adv Funct. Mater. 21, 927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. H.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Konstantatos, G.

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, Proc. IEEE 97, 1666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. H.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. K. F.

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. L.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monbouquette, H. G.

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. E. Coates, S. Valouch, and D. Moses, Adv Funct. Mater. 21, 927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. E.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.-J.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peet, J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piotrowski, J.

J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, High-Operating-Temperature Infrared Photodetectors (SPIE, 2007).

Pope, M.

M. Pope and C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers (Oxford University, 1999).

Rogalski, A.

J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, High-Operating-Temperature Infrared Photodetectors (SPIE, 2007).

Sargent, E. H.

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, Proc. IEEE 97, 1666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, C.-L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.-K.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Swenberg, C. E.

M. Pope and C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers (Oxford University, 1999).

Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valouch, S.

G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. E. Coates, S. Valouch, and D. Moses, Adv Funct. Mater. 21, 927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv Funct. Mater.

G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. E. Coates, S. Valouch, and D. Moses, Adv Funct. Mater. 21, 927 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, J. Hou, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, Adv Funct. Mater. 18, 1783 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Gao and F. A. Hegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun.

J.-H. Park, D. S. Chung, D. H. Lee, H. Kong, I. H. Jung, M.-J. Park, N. S. Cho, C. E. Park, and H.-K. Shim, Chem. Commun. 46, 1863 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. H. Campbell and B. K. Crone, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

H.-Y. Chen, M. K. F. Lo, G. Yang, H. G. Monbouquette, and Y. Yang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 543 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, Proc. IEEE 97, 1666 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Donati, Photodetectors (Prentice-Hall. 2000).

J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski, High-Operating-Temperature Infrared Photodetectors (SPIE, 2007).

M. Pope and C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers (Oxford University, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Tapping-mode AFM images of PAT:PC70BM blend films (a) without DIO and with (b) 1%, (c) 2%, (d) 3% DIO. The values of rms roughness were 0.39, 0.40, 0.54, and 0.79 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Out-of-plane XRD results of PAT/PC70BM blend with various loading ratio of DIO.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dark I–V, (b) R–V characteristics of PPDs, (c) transient photocurrent spectra of PPDs, and (d) transfer characteristics of field effect transistors using the PAT:PCBM blend as semiconductor layer measured under saturation condition (source-drain voltage of 100V). In all the optical measurements, the channel width/length is 1000μm/100μm and the illuminated light intensity is 0.2mWcm2 with wavelength of 470 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detectivity of PPDs as a function of wavelength.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=Gηqhv,
G=cτμ(E)V/L2,
f=1/2πτ.
D*=R/(2qJd)2,

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