Abstract

Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging technique that has broad preclinical and clinical applications. Based on the photoacoustic effect, PAT directly measures specific optical absorption, which is the product of the tissue-intrinsic optical absorption coefficient and the local optical fluence. Therefore, quantitative PAT, such as absolute oxygen saturation (sO2) quantification, requires knowledge of the local optical fluence, which can only be estimated through invasive measurements or sophisticated modeling of light transportation. In this Letter, we circumvent this requirement by taking advantage of the dynamics in sO2. The new method works when the sO2 transition can be simultaneously monitored with multiple wavelengths. For each wavelength, the ratio of photoacoustic amplitudes measured at different sO2 states is utilized. Using the ratio cancels the contribution from optical fluence and allows calibration-free quantification of absolute sO2. The new method was validated through both phantom and in vivo experiments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cyrous, B. O’Neal, and W. D. Freeman, Expert Rev. Neurotherap. 12, 915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2007

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Inverse Probl. 23, S113 (2007).
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J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Hockel and P. Vaupel, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A.

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
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J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
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Anastasio, M.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
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B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A. Q.

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 141 (2007).
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Beard, P. C.

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061202 (2012).
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D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
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Chatni, M.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chatni, M. R.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
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D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
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Cox, B.

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cyrous, A.

A. Cyrous, B. O’Neal, and W. D. Freeman, Expert Rev. Neurotherap. 12, 915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Bruin, D. M.

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elwell, C.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erpelding, T. N.

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R.

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W. D.

A. Cyrous, B. O’Neal, and W. D. Freeman, Expert Rev. Neurotherap. 12, 915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, J.

Gibson, J. J.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

Guo, Z.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 2067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, R. J.

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hockel, M.

M. Hockel and P. Vaupel, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

Huang, F.

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kogel, C.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J. G.

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Inverse Probl. 23, S113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maurudis, A.

Nothdurft, R. E.

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Neal, B.

A. Cyrous, B. O’Neal, and W. D. Freeman, Expert Rev. Neurotherap. 12, 915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Percival, C.

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peters, L. J.

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poplack, S. P.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Porceddu, S.

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rischin, D.

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, R.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, F. J.

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaupel, P.

M. Hockel and P. Vaupel, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H. V.

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 35, 2067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Inverse Probl. 23, S113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. H.

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Inverse Probl. 23, S113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Expert Rev. Neurotherap.

A. Cyrous, B. O’Neal, and W. D. Freeman, Expert Rev. Neurotherap. 12, 915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, Inverse Probl. 23, S113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Xia, Z. Guo, K. Maslov, A. Aguirre, Q. Zhu, C. Percival, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Cox, J. G. Laufer, S. R. Arridge, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061202 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Q. Bauer, R. E. Nothdurft, T. N. Erpelding, L. V. Wang, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 096016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Oncol.

D. Rischin, R. J. Hicks, R. Fisher, D. Binns, J. Corry, S. Porceddu, and L. J. Peters, J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst.

M. Hockel and P. Vaupel, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 266 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. Laufer, D. Delpy, C. Elwell, and P. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

M. H. Xu and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, D. M. de Bruin, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 5861, 58610W (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (1809 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (5912 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (14126 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Physical model: a blood vessel embedded in a piece of tissue. (b) sO2 values calculated using the dynamic and conventional methods. The simulation parameters are as follows: εHbO2(650nm)=368cm1M1, εHb(650nm)=3750cm1M1, εHbO2(750nm)=518cm1M1, εHb(750nm)=1405cm1M1, CHbT=2.3mM, μa_tissue(650nm)=0.1cm1, and μa_tissue(750nm)=0.08cm1. Scattering coefficients: μs_blood(650nm)=750cm1, μs_blood(750nm)=720cm1, μs_tissue(650nm)=100cm1, and μs_tissue(750nm)=80cm1. Anisotropy factors: gblood=0.9945 and gtissue=0.9.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the photoacoustic computed tomography system. (b) Raw channel data from the 512-element ultrasound transducer array. White arrows: photoacoustic signals generated on the transducer surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Results from the phantom experiment. (a) Photoacoustic image of a blood-filled tube embedded in a piece of chicken tissue. Scale bar: 1 mm. (b). Changes in photoacoustic amplitude within the tube (Media 1, QuickTime, 5.9 MB). (c). sO2 values calculated based on the conventional and the new dynamic methods (Media 2, QuickTime, 6.0 MB).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In vivo experimental results. Photoacoustic images of cortex vasculature acquired noninvasively at (a) 650 nm and (b) 750 nm laser wavelengths. Scale bar: 2 mm. (c) Changes in photoacoustic amplitude at different wavelengths in the superior sagittal sinus. (d) sO2 calculated based on the conventional and the new dynamic methods. (Media 3, QuickTime, 7.6 MB).

Equations (5)

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p0=ΓμaF.
μa(λ1,sO2(a))=ln(10)[CHbT·sO2(a)·εHbO2(λ1)+CHbT·(1sO2(a))·εHb(λ1)],
PA(λ1,sO2(a))PA(λ2,sO2(a))=CHbT(a)[sO2(a)×εHbO2(λ1)+(1sO2(a))×εHb(λ1)]F(λ1)CHbT(a)[sO2(a)×εHbO2(λ2)+(1sO2(a))×εHb(λ2)]F(λ2).
PA(λ1,sO2(a))PA(λ1,sO2(b))=CHbT(a)[sO2(a)×εHbO2(λ1)+(1sO2(a))×εHb(λ1)]F(λ1,a)CHbT(b)[sO2(b)×εHbO2(λ1)+(1sO2(b))×εHb(λ1)]F(λ1,b).
PA(λ1,sO2(a))PA(λ1,sO2(b))=CHbT(a)CHbT(b)sO2(a)×εHbO2(λ1)+(1sO2(a))×εHb(λ1)sO2(b)×εHbO2(λ1)+(1sO2(b))×εHb(λ1).

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