Abstract

We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first waveguide photonic crystal cavity operating in the mid-infrared. The devices were fabricated from Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass (ChG) on CaF2 substrates by combing photolithographic patterning and focused ion beam milling. The waveguide-coupled cavities were characterized using a fiber end fire coupling method at 5.2 μm wavelength, and a loaded quality factor of 2000 was measured near the critical coupling regime.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

2012 (6)

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, Opt. Express 20, 29361 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, Z. Yi, and J. Hu, Opt. Lett. 37, 1304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091105 (2012).

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

J. J. Hu, Opt. Express 18, 22174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. Eggleton, Opt. Express 14, 1070 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, Opt. Express 15, 2307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charvolin, T.

Chen, X.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiles, J.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091105 (2012).

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danto, S.

Deotare, P. B.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M.

Eggleton, B.

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Esnault, M. O. S.

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091105 (2012).

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

Fung, C. K.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

Grillet, C.

Hadji, E.

Hochberg, M.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Hu, J. J.

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ilic, R.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091105 (2012).

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, Opt. Lett. 38, 1470 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kozacik, S.

Krauss, T. F.

Kuramochi, E.

Lalanne, P.

Leijssen, R.

Li, L.

Lin, H.

Lin, P. T.

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, R. Leijssen, and M. Loncar, Opt. Express 19, 24828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Quan and M. Loncar, Opt. Express 19, 18529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Shankar, R. Leijssen, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, Opt. Express 19, 5579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, J.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091105 (2012).

Madden, S.

Magi, E.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

McCutcheon, M. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

Murakowski, M.

Musgraves, J. D.

Nedeljkovic, M.

Notomi, M.

O’Faolain, L.

Painter, O.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

J. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, Opt. Express 15, 2307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peyrade, D.

Picard, E.

Prather, D.

Qiu, C.

Quan, Q.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Q. M.

Reardon, C.

Reimer, C.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, J. C.

Rodriguez, V.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A.

A. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, R.

Shu, J.

Singh, V.

Smith, C. L. C.

Smith, H. I.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, Proc. SPIE 6898, 689809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stothard, D. J. M.

Tang, H. X.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

Tarasov, V.

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velha, P.

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Xiong, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yi, Z.

Zhang, X.

Zou, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 091105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 091105 (2012).

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Seddon, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 462, 78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. Soref, Proc. SPIE 6898, 689809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

http://www.lumerical.com .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic fabrication process flow for the Ge23Sb7S70 ChG waveguide PhC cavities on CaF2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Anatomy section of holes in a 3 μm wide, 1.2 μm thick Ge23Sb7S70 ChG waveguide milled using different ion beam dose for etch rate calibration; (b) cross-sectional SEM image of a PhC through hole, showing a smooth surface finish and near vertical sidewalls; (c) FIB etch depth of the holes plotted as a function of ion beam dose inferred from panel a (the CaF2 substrate serves as an excellent etch stop for FIB milling, and thus the etch depth saturates at the glass film thickness); (d) top-view microscope image of waveguide PhC cavity, consisting of a section of unstructured channel waveguides (170μm in length) confined between two PhC mirrors (marked by the red boxes); (e) top-view SEM image of one of the PhC mirrors; (f) diameters of PhC mirror holes shown in panel (e) (the center-to-center spacing between the holes is fixed at 1.65 μm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated transmission and reflection spectra of the PhC mirror in Fig. 2(e). Inset shows the TE mode intensity profile of the unstructured mid-IR glass waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Mid-IR optical transmission spectrum of the waveguide PhC cavity shown in Fig. 2(d) (cavity length 170 μm, 14 PhC mirror holes) measured using a wavelength sweeping method; (b) quality factor of resonance peaks in panel (a)—their Q factors monotonically decrease as their resonant wavelengths approach the photonic band edge.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Mid-IR transmission spectrum of a waveguide PhC cavity with a 440 μm long cavity positioned between two 10-hole PhC mirrors; (b) evolution of loaded cavity Q factors as the PhC mirror hole number increases: the black bars represent experimentally measured Q values, and the red crosses denote simulation results using the fitted waveguide optical loss value (53dB/cm) in Table 1.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters Used to Calculate the PhC Cavity Transmittance in Fig. 5(a)

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T=|Tsexp(ikL0.5αL)1Rsexp(2ikLαL)|2,

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