Abstract

We present a design that exploits the focusing properties of scattering media to increase the resolution and the working distance of multimode fiber (MMF)-based imaging devices. Placing a highly scattering medium in front of the distal tip of the MMF enables the formation of smaller sized foci at increased working distances away from the fiber tip. We perform a parametric study of the effect of the working distance and the separation between the fiber and the scattering medium on the focus size. We experimentally demonstrate submicrometer focused spots as far away as 800 μm with 532 nm light.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (6)

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 20, 10583 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guan, O. Katz, E. Small, J. Zhou, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 4663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Cui and C. Yang, Opt. Express 18, 3444 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 18, 12283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1993 (1)

Akbulut, D.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, D.

Bellanger, C.

Bianchi, S.

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brignon, A.

Cheung, E. L.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colineau, J.

Cui, M.

Dasari, R.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Di Leonardo, R.

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, S.

Feld, M.

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gmitro, A. F.

Göbel, W.

Grange, R.

Guan, Y.

Helmchen, F.

Hsieh, C.-L.

Huignard, J. P.

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, P.

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guan, O. Katz, E. Small, J. Zhou, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 4663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. N. D.

Kim, M.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Lagendijk, A.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lerosey, G.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moser, C.

Mosk, A. P.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nimmerjahn, A.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guan, O. Katz, E. Small, J. Zhou, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 4663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Small, E.

Y. Guan, O. Katz, E. Small, J. Zhou, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 37, 4663 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Putten, E. G.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, I.

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vos, B. J. W.

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yang, T.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

Zhou, J.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Lab Chip (1)

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (2)

T. Čižmár and K. Dholakia, Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, Nat. Methods 2, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Nat. Photonics 4, 320 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, Nat. Photonics 6, 549 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y. Choi, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. Lee, R. Dasari, M. Feld, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. G. van Putten, D. Akbulut, B. J. W. Vos, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 193905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. Dasari, K. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 12285 (2012).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Highly scattering medium placed in front of an MMF will lead to a system with an increased number of degrees of freedom. The fiber diffracts with an angle associated with the fiber NA and enters the scattering medium, where it gets diffused. The large aperture from which the focusing originates is a result of these two processes. (b),(c) Comparison of the speckled output of the fiber with and without the scattering medium. The presence of the scattering medium causes the maximum number of modes to be excited in the fiber in a uniform manner [shown in (b)]. (d) Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(e) Evolution of the beam size for a fixed working distance of 600 μm as the distance between the scattering medium and the fiber increases from 200 to 1000 μm. The spot has the expected Gaussian profile, and a beam waist smaller than 1 μm is demonstrated. Scale bar is 1 μm. (f) Quantitative results of the Gaussian fitted beam waist as a function of the distance between the fiber and the scattering medium for different working distances. As expected, the beam waist decreases when the fiber is moved away from the scattering medium.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Superimposed images of focused spots generated across a 256μm×192μm field of view, at a working distance of 600 μm (distance between fiber and diffuser, d2=600μm; distance between adjacent spots=8μm). The size and quality of the spots remain constant across the whole field of view. Scale bar, 20 μm.

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