Abstract

We present an efficient method to design apodized grating couplers with Gaussian output profiles for efficient coupling between standard single mode fibers and silicon chips. An apodized grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystal holes on the silicon-on-insulator platform is designed, and fabricated in a single step of lithography and etching. An ultralow coupling loss of 1.74dB (67% coupling efficiency) with a 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm is experimentally measured.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett., 28, 1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Lo, Opt. Express 21, 7868 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and Í. Molina-Fernández, Opt. Lett. 35, 3243 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Bienstman, “Rigorous and efficient modelling of wavelength scale photonic components,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Ghent, 2001).
  12. D. Gao and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, H. Gualous, D. Pascal, A. Koster, and S. Laval, Appl. Opt. 39, 5773 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ding, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, Opt. Lett. 38, 1227 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.
  16. W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

2013 (2)

2010 (4)

2006 (3)

D. Gao and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Absil, P.

Almeida, V. R.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bedard, D.

Berroth, M.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman, “Rigorous and efficient modelling of wavelength scale photonic components,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Ghent, 2001).

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butschke, J.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fung, K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Gao, D.

D. Gao and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gualous, H.

Halir, R.

Hu, H.

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Hvam, J. M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jeppesen, P.

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Ji, H.

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Koster, A.

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

Layadi, A.

Lepage, G.

Letzkus, F.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Li, C.

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Lo, Opt. Express 21, 7868 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Lo, Opt. Express 21, 7868 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulvad, H. C. H.

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Orobtchouk, R.

Ou, H.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Panepucci, R. R.

Pascal, D.

Peucheret, C.

Pu, M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Roelkens, G.

Rosa, M. F.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Schmid, J.

Selvaraja, S.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, M.

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Thourhout, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, W.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Yvind, K.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

Zaoui, W. S.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

Zhang, H.

Zhou, Z.

D. Gao and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Gao and Z. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, M. Stanley, G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 456658 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, M. Pu, H. C. H. Mulvad, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a high-speed RZ-OOK signal in a silicon nanowire,” in Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 595–596.

W. S. Zaoui, M. F. Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.E.2.

P. Bienstman, “Rigorous and efficient modelling of wavelength scale photonic components,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Ghent, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D analytical model of the apodized grating coupler; SMF, single mode fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated required refractive index ni of the artificial material of a scattering cell and the corresponding power leakage factor as a function of the scattering cell length li.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Designed and target power leakage factors and Gaussian output profiles. (b) Final dimension and refractive index distribution of the artificial material for the designed grating coupler.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Calculated coupling efficiency as a function of the BOX thickness and (b) calculated field distribution Ey at 1550 nm, for the designed grating coupler with 1 μm BOX layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Grating coupler design with the original parameters and when the hole diameter is restricted to values above 100 nm. (b) Corresponding calculated coupling efficiencies for uniform and optimized grating couplers with a ±4nm hole diameter deviation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Fabricated apodized grating coupler. (b) Measured coupling efficiencies as a function of wavelength for the grating couplers with and without a ±4nm hole diameter deviation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ=l(neffnupsinθ),
2α(z)=G2(z)/[10zG2(z)dz].
n2D2nh2=nc2(1+f)+nh2(1f)nc2(1f)+nh2(1+f),

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