Abstract

We investigate evidence of the formation of nonbridging oxygen hole centers in pure silica photonic crystal fibers from 5 ps 1064 nm pulses. The formation of the defects is attributed to the breaking of stressed silicon–oxygen bonds in the glass matrix through a many-photon process. We compare the photodarkening induced by the 1064 nm pump with photodarkening induced by short wavelength light in a 1064 nm pumped supercontinuum extending to 400 nm. It is shown that the higher peak power at the pump wavelength makes it a more significant cause of photodarkening when compared to the shorter wavelength light generated in the fiber.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011

2009

2008

2006

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Express 14, 9854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Saito and A. Ikushima, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Kajihara, L. Skuja, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Hosono and Y. Ikuta, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 166, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Vitiello, N. Lopez, F. Illas, and G. Pacchioni, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4674 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1987

K. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, and Y. Hama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 712 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Stone, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 25, 609 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 373 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Stone and G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Decréton, M.

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deparis, O.

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engholm, M.

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 373 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gingerich, M. E.

Gorbach, A. V.

Griscom, D.

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

Grodsky, R.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hama, Y.

K. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, and Y. Hama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, L. Skuja, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, L. E.

Hoshi, Y.

K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, L. Skuja, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono and Y. Ikuta, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 166, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, L. Skuja, and T. Ogawa, Opt. Lett. 24, 1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A.

K. Saito and A. Ikushima, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, Y.

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono and Y. Ikuta, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 166, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Illas, F.

M. Vitiello, N. Lopez, F. Illas, and G. Pacchioni, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4674 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jelger, P.

Jetschke, S.

Kajihara, K.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, L. Skuja, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kikugawa, S.

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

Knight, J. C.

Laurell, F.

Leich, M.

Lopez, N.

M. Vitiello, N. Lopez, F. Illas, and G. Pacchioni, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4674 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, M.

Mosley, P. J.

Muir, A. C.

Nagasawa, K.

K. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, and Y. Hama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Norin, L.

Ogawa, T.

Ohki, Y.

K. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, and Y. Hama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Oto, M.

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pacchioni, G.

M. Vitiello, N. Lopez, F. Illas, and G. Pacchioni, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4674 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M.

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

K. Saito and A. Ikushima, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

Skryabin, D. V.

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, L. Skuja, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, L. Skuja, and T. Ogawa, Opt. Lett. 24, 1549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 712 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 25, 609 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone and G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. M.

Unger, S.

Unruh, W.

Vitiello, M.

M. Vitiello, N. Lopez, F. Illas, and G. Pacchioni, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4674 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walrafen, G. E.

J. Stone and G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yahagi, K.

K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Kajihara, L. Skuja, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev.

J. Stone, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 25, 609 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Saito and A. Ikushima, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. Stone and G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Stone, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 712 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

O. Deparis, D. Griscom, P. Mégret, M. Decréton, and M. Blondel, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 216, 124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Oto, S. Kikugawa, T. Miura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 71, 373 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

M. Vitiello, N. Lopez, F. Illas, and G. Pacchioni, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4674 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Nagasawa, Y. Ohki, and Y. Hama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, L1009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagasawa, Y. Hoshi, Y. Ohki, and K. Yahagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. Methods B

H. Hosono and Y. Ikuta, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 166, 691 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Oto, M. Hirano, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, Nucl. Instr. Methods B 218, 323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A. Zoubir, C. Rivero, R. Grodsky, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and M. Couzi, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Phys. Rev. B 84, 205206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Hosono, Y. Ikuta, T. Kinoshita, K. Kajihara, and M. Hirano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 175501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Output spectrum after 2 m of all normal dispersion fiber from our highest power (2.66 W) experiment. Although data are only presented to 600 nm, no light was detected down to 200 nm. (b) Output spectra at 0 and 47 h (shown in blue and red, respectively) after 10 m of supercontinuum fiber. Evidence of photodarkening can clearly be seen from the depletion of the visible region of the supercontinuum after 47 h.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Induced loss measured in 20 cm cutbacks of our all-normal dispersion fiber samples after 24 h. (a) is for an average output power during the experiment of 2.66 W, (b) is for 2.15 W, and (c) is for 1.67 W. The ordering of the legend reflects the order in which the traces appear in each plot at 630 nm. In (b) no trace is shown for 60–80 cm and in (c) only 0–20 cm is shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Induced loss measured in 2 m cutbacks of our supercontinuum fiber after running for 47 h. The ordering of the legend reflects the order in which the traces appear at 630 nm.

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