Abstract

We demonstrate the first (to the best of our knowledge) depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator fabricated in a standard advanced complementary metal–oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic process (45 nm node SOI CMOS) with no process modifications. The zero-change CMOS photonics approach enables this device to be monolithically integrated into state-of-the-art microprocessors and advanced electronics. Because these processes support lateral p-n junctions but not efficient ridge waveguides, we accommodate these constraints with a new type of resonant modulator. It is based on a hybrid microring/disk cavity formed entirely in the sub-90 nm thick monocrystalline silicon transistor body layer. Electrical contact of both polarities is made along the inner radius of the multimode ring cavity via an array of silicon spokes. The spokes connect to p and n regions formed using transistor well implants, which form radially extending lateral junctions that provide index modulation. We show 5 Gbps data modulation at 1265 nm wavelength with 5.2 dB extinction ratio and an estimated 40fJ/bit energy consumption. Broad thermal tuning is demonstrated across 3.2 THz (18 nm) with an efficiency of 291GHz/mW. A single postprocessing step to remove the silicon handle wafer was necessary to support low-loss optical confinement in the device layer. This modulator is an important step toward monolithically integrated CMOS photonic interconnects.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, Opt. Express 20, 12222 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.
  4. J. Hofrichter, O. Raz, A. La Porta, T. Morf, P. Mechet, G. Morthier, T. De Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, and B. J. Offrein, Opt. Express 20, 9363 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.
  6. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Opt. Express 19, 20435 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 20, 26411 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, Opt. Express 19, 21989 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Chin and S. Ho, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. H. Atabaki, M. Soltani, and A. Adibi, Opt. Express 18, 2127 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. H. Atabaki, M. Soltani, and A. Adibi, Opt. Express 18, 2127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1998

Adibi, A.

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Atabaki, A. H.

Barwicz, T.

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. T.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. F.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M.

Chou, A.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Cunningham, J. E.

De Vries, T.

Dorren, H. J. S.

Freeman, G.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Fung, S. K. H.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

Green, W. M. J.

Ho, S.

Hofrichter, J.

Holzwarth, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hoyt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jagannathan, B.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Johnson, J.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

La Porta, A.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Lentine, A. L.

Li, C. T.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lien, C.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.

Lo, H. C.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W. C.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.

Mechet, P.

Morf, T.

Morthier, G.

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, S.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Offrein, B. J.

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pekarik, J.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Plouchart, J.-O.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Popovic, M.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

Ram, R.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raz, O.

Rosenberg, J. C.

Schmidt, B.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.

Shakya, J.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.

Shank, S. M.

Shubin, I.

Smith, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, M.

Springer, S.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wagner, L.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Watts, M. R.

Williams, R.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Wu, C. C.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.

Yang, C.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yao, J.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Young, R. W.

Zamdmer, N.

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

IEEE Micro Mag.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popović, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kärtner, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, IEEE Micro Mag. 29(4), 821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

H. C. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. T. Li, W. C. Luo, W. Lu, M. Chen, C. F. Cheng, T. Chen, C. Yang, C. Lien, S. K. H. Fung, and C. C. Wu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, H875 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

S. Lee, B. Jagannathan, S. Narasimha, A. Chou, N. Zamdmer, J. Johnson, R. Williams, L. Wagner, J. Kim, J.-O. Plouchart, J. Pekarik, S. Springer, and G. Freeman, in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2007), pp. 255–258.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (IEEE, 2007), pp. 537–538.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Layout of monolithically integrated modulator showing spoked contacts, radial p-n junctions, mode-selective waveguide coupler, and back-end metal stackup (left inset, contacts and lateral junctions; right inset, top view showing central heater). (b) Zoom-out: driver and heater contact pads and input grating coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical transmission spectral response with single transverse-mode operation evident (FSR=3.2THz, extinction near 1260 nm is >10dB), (b) device I-V curve, (c) resonant optical response at DC bias voltages from 4 to +0.6V, (d) calculated cross-sectional mode profile (the waveguiding body silicon and the nitride liner layer above it are outlined), and (e) optical micrograph of the device taken from below after removal of the handle Si wafer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) 5 Gbps optical eye diagram with 5.2 dB modulation depth in response to drive voltage swing from 3 to +0.6V (at the device terminals), (b) thermal tuning of the modulated resonance across a full FSR (efficiency: 291GHz/mW), and (c) linear resonance tuning versus heater power.

Metrics