Abstract

We report on the ultralow timing jitter of the 100 MHz pulse trains generated by two identical passively mode-locked diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) emitting at 1556 nm. Ultralow timing jitter of 83 as (integrated from 10 kHz to 50 MHz) for one laser has been measured with a balanced optical cross-correlator as timing discriminator. Extremely low intensity noise has been measured as well. Several measurement techniques have been used and show similar jitter results. Different possible noise sources have been theoretically investigated and compared to the measured jitter power spectral density. It is found that although the measured integrated jitter is quite low, it is still significantly above the quantum limit in the considered frequency span. Therefore, there is a substantial potential for technical improvements that could make passively mode-locked DPSSL outperform fiber lasers as source of microwaves with low phase noise.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

R. Paschotta, Appl. Phys. B 79, 163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Benedick, A.

Benedick, A. J.

A. J. Benedick, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 6, 97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Cox, J.

Demirbas, U.

Diddams, S. A.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gopinath, J. T.

Haboucha, A.

Hati, A.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, H.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 36, 4443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, H. Kim, and J. Kim, Opt. Express 19, 14518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Kaertner, F. X.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 36, 4443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, H. Kim, and J. Kim, Opt. Express 19, 14518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Kim, H.

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 36, 4443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, H. Kim, and J. Kim, Opt. Express 19, 14518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Kim, J.

Kim, T. K.

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kuzucu, O.

Le Coq, Y.

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Li, T.

Lours, M.

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Nam, C. H.

Nelson, C.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A. E. H.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, Appl. Phys. B 79, 163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pekarek, S.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Qin, P.

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators, The Cambridge RF and Microwave Engineering Series (Cambridge University, 2009).

Santarelli, G.

Schibli, T. R.

Sennaroglu, A.

Shin, J.

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Song, Y.

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, Opt. Lett. 36, 4443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, H. Kim, and J. Kim, Opt. Express 19, 14518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Stumpf, M. C.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, S. N.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

Zhang, W.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. Paschotta, Appl. Phys. B 79, 163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 99, 401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 5, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, H. Jiang, A. Hati, C. Nelson, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, Nat. Photonics 7, 290 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Benedick, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 6, 97 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

H. Kim, P. Qin, J. Shin, Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, C. Wang, and J. Kim, in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh4M.4

E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators, The Cambridge RF and Microwave Engineering Series (Cambridge University, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup and BOC signal when the laser repetition rates are stabilized with a small frequency difference (3 Hz) to produce a controlled sweep of the delay between the pulses. The monitoring signals of the positive and negative photodiodes were rescaled by a factor of 1/5. Acronyms in the diagram: λ/2, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; DM1, dichroic mirror high transmission at 1560 nm, high reflectivity at 780 nm; PPKTP, periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal; DM2, dichroic mirror high transmission at 780 nm, high reflectivity at 1560 nm; BPD, balanced photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two laser synchronization schemes (see text for details). BOC, balanced optical cross-correlator; BPF, band pass filter; BPD, balanced photodetector; LPF, low pass filter; HV, high voltage; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative timing jitter PSD of the two Er:Yb glass lasers. The corresponding single-sideband phase noise rescaled to a 10 GHz carrier frequency is indicated in the right-axis scale. In the legend of the figure, Sync.Scheme 1 and 2 refer to the schemes for laser synchronization presented in Fig. 2. Digitizer and Vector Ana. (Vector Analyzer) indicate the data acquisition method. The dotted curve indicates the estimated theoretical timing jitter (see text for details) without timing stabilization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RIN of the two passively mode-locked Er:Yb glass lasers. The two horizontal lines correspond to the calculated photocurrent shot noise.

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