Abstract

We have developed a novel noncontact setup to implement a cone shell illumination and detection configuration using axicon lenses for depth-sensitive fluorescence measurements. The setup was demonstrated experimentally to be capable of detecting fluorescence from a two-layered turbid agar phantom with a larger sensitivity to the deep layer and a larger range of sensitivity to either layer than a conventional cone configuration implemented by a microscope objective lens. Furthermore, the axicon lens-based setup eliminates the need of moving the objective lens up or down to achieve depth-sensitive measurements, which effectively improves the consistency of optical coupling and thus would be preferred in a clinical setting.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 29, 2034 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, Opt. Lett. 28, 120 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, Opt. Lett. 27, 104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. G. Zhu and Q. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 29807 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Michels, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, Opt. Express 16, 5907 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Everall, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 773 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H. F.

H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ediger, M. N.

Everall, N.

Foschum, F.

Hu, X. H.

H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K. M.

H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

Liu, Q.

Lu, J. Q.

H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matchette, L. S.

Michels, R.

Novak, J.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, T. J.

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

Ross, A. M.

Salomatina, E.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. G.

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

H. F. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 1151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of (a) the cone illumination and detection configuration based on a microscope objective lens and (b) the cone shell configuration based on the combination of axicon lenses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence spectra measured using the cone shell configuration from the two-layered phantom at a range of targeted focal depths corrected for refractive index mismatch. The abbreviation “c.u.” refers to the calibrated unit.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sensitivity to the top and bottom layers as a function of the targeted depth of focus beneath the phantom surface, which has been corrected for refractive index mismatch between the sample and air. “○” refers to the cone configuration; “×” refers to the cone shell configuration. The solid line and dashed line indicate the sensitivities to the top layer and the bottom layer, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Properties (μs[cm1] and μa[cm1]) of the Top and Bottom Layers for Tissue Phantom at the Excitation Wavelength and at the Peak Emission Wavelengths of FAD and PpIX. μs Refers to the Reduced Scattering Coefficient; μa Refers to the Absorption Coefficient

Metrics