Abstract

Low-frequency electric fields propagating in ex vivo biological tissues have been observed by using double-correlation optical coherence tomography (OCT). An adaptive Wiener filtering approach has been used to remove background noise, and a Fourier domain correlation algorithm has been applied to the sequence of OCT images. The results present the first direct observation (to our knowledge) of the scope of the electric field influencing biological tissues with OCT. The results show that variation in voltage and frequency of the applied electric field relates exponentially to the magnitude of its influence on biological tissue. The magnitude of influence is about twice more for fresh tissue samples in comparison to nonfresh ones. The obtained results suggest that OCT can be used for observation and quantitative evaluation of the electrokinetic changes in biological tissues under different physiological conditions, functional electrical stimulation, and food quality control.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Polk and E. Postow, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (CRC Press, 1996).
  2. K. R. Foster and H. P. Schwan, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17, 25104 (1989).
  3. C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).
  4. C. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Doronin and I. Meglinski, Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201200108 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Gonzalez and R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice Hall, 2008).
  11. J. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1989).
  12. A. C. Bovik, The Essential Guide to Image Processing (Academic, 2009).
  13. D. Miklavcic, N. Pavselj, and F. X. Hart, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering (Wiley, 2009).
  14. H. J. Swatland, in VI Congresso Brasileiro de Cincia e Tecnologia de Carnes (São Pedro, 2011), Vol. 6, p. 119.

2013

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

J.-I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).

1989

K. R. Foster and H. P. Schwan, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17, 25104 (1989).

1984

C. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

J.-I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auger, F. A.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bourdages, M.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bovik, A. C.

A. C. Bovik, The Essential Guide to Image Processing (Academic, 2009).

Delgado, A. V.

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demidov, V.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Doronin, A.

A. Doronin and I. Meglinski, Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201200108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, C.

C. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Foster, K. R.

K. R. Foster and H. P. Schwan, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17, 25104 (1989).

Germain, L.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R.

R. Gonzalez and R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice Hall, 2008).

Gonzalez-Caballero, F.

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goulet, D.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hart, F. X.

D. Miklavcic, N. Pavselj, and F. X. Hart, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering (Wiley, 2009).

Hunter, R. J.

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katnik, C.

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).

Koopal, L. K.

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

J. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1989).

Lyklema, J.

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meglinski, I.

A. Doronin and I. Meglinski, Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201200108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Méthot, S.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miklavcic, D.

D. Miklavcic, N. Pavselj, and F. X. Hart, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering (Wiley, 2009).

Milner, T. E.

J.-I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, V.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nuccitelli, R.

C. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pavselj, N.

D. Miklavcic, N. Pavselj, and F. X. Hart, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering (Wiley, 2009).

Plante, M.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Polk, C.

C. Polk and E. Postow, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (CRC Press, 1996).

Postow, E.

C. Polk and E. Postow, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (CRC Press, 1996).

Rancourt, D.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwan, H. P.

K. R. Foster and H. P. Schwan, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17, 25104 (1989).

Sun, C.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Swatland, H. J.

H. J. Swatland, in VI Congresso Brasileiro de Cincia e Tecnologia de Carnes (São Pedro, 2011), Vol. 6, p. 119.

Toronov, V.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, A.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vuong, B.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Waugh, R.

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).

Woods, R.

R. Gonzalez and R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice Hall, 2008).

Xu, Y.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, V. X. D.

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Youn, J.-I.

J.-I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).

Can. J. Chem. Eng.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

K. R. Foster and H. P. Schwan, Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17, 25104 (1989).

J. Cell Biol.

C. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

A. V. Delgado, F. Gonzalez-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas.

J.-I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

V. Demidov, V. Toronov, Y. Xu, B. Vuong, C. Sun, V. X. D. Yang, and A. Vitkin, Proc. SPIE 8571, 85712Q (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Doronin and I. Meglinski, Laser Photon. Rev., doi:10.1002/lpor.201200108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gonzalez and R. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. (Prentice Hall, 2008).

J. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 1989).

A. C. Bovik, The Essential Guide to Image Processing (Academic, 2009).

D. Miklavcic, N. Pavselj, and F. X. Hart, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering (Wiley, 2009).

H. J. Swatland, in VI Congresso Brasileiro de Cincia e Tecnologia de Carnes (São Pedro, 2011), Vol. 6, p. 119.

C. Polk and E. Postow, Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (CRC Press, 1996).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (2344 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic presentation of the experiment. The OCT probe is placed above the surface of the tissue sample ( 6 cm × 4 cm × 2 cm ).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic presentation of double-correlation image reconstruction. Step 1 is the acquiring of 2D and 3D OCT images, Step 2 shows the procedure of Wiener filtering of the obtained OCT images, Step 3 represents the cross-correlation procedure between frames n and n + 1 , and Step 4 is the generation of correlation map/image. Media 1 presents video taken for the sample of fresh chicken meat without and with the exposure of the alternating current of 10 V and 1 Hz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

2D correlation images of fresh chicken breast (pectoralis) samples at normal conditions, i.e., (a) with no current applied and (b) with the exposure to 10 V and 1 Hz alternating current.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative magnitude of influence of the external electric field on biological tissue and its changes with the increase of frequency from 0.1 to 5 Hz, taken for 20 V (left), and with the increase of amplitude in a range of 0–20 V, taken for 1 Hz frequency (right). Circles and squares represent the fresh and nonfresh meat samples, respectively; the solid lines show the results of exponential fitting.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W ( I ) = P S ( I ) P S ( I ) + P N ( I ) .
C ( x , z ) = F 1 ( F ( I A ) × F ( I B ) ¯ ) ,
F ( I A ) = x = 0 M 1 y = 0 N 1 I A ( x , z ) e 2 π i ( u x / M + v z / N ) , F ( I B ) = x = 0 M 1 z = 0 N 1 I B ( x , z ) e 2 π i ( u x / M + v z / N ) .
Ψ = 1 1 M × N x = 0 M 1 z = 0 N 1 C ( x , z ) .

Metrics