Abstract

We demonstrate that a binocular color difference can be used to express the surface glossiness of an object on 3D display devices without being accompanied by a specular reflection pattern. A simple image with a binocular color difference provides a similar surface appearance impression to a real object that has the same binocular color difference. It is found that human binocular perception is likely to interpret binocular color difference as spectral reflectance rather than as transparency. Binocular glossiness is caused not only by a binocular lightness difference but also by a chromatic or hue difference.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 2005).
  2. Y. J. Jung, H. Sohn, S.-I. Lee, Y. M. Ro, and H. W. Park, Opt. Express 19, 7325 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Shimono, S. Shioiri, and H. Yaguchi, Vis. Res. 49, 202 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. K. F. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (Hamburg Voss, 1909).
  5. P. N. Loxley and P. A. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 258701 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Pieper and I. Ludwig, Perception 31, 185 (2002).
  7. M. A. Formankiewicz and J. D. Mollon, Vis. Res. 49, 1929 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. P. Howard, Perception 24, 67 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Anstis, Vis. Res. 40, 2551 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, J. Vision 8, 14 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Qin, M. Takamatsu, and Y. Nakashima, Opt. Rev. 16, 404 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Blake and H. Bülthoff, Nature 343, 165 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2012

D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

K. Shimono, S. Shioiri, and H. Yaguchi, Vis. Res. 49, 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Loxley and P. A. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 258701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Formankiewicz and J. D. Mollon, Vis. Res. 49, 1929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Qin, M. Takamatsu, and Y. Nakashima, Opt. Rev. 16, 404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, J. Vision 8, 14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Pieper and I. Ludwig, Perception 31, 185 (2002).

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. M. Anstis, Vis. Res. 40, 2551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. P. Howard, Perception 24, 67 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Blake and H. Bülthoff, Nature 343, 165 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anstis, S. M.

S. M. Anstis, Vis. Res. 40, 2551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blake, A.

A. Blake and H. Bülthoff, Nature 343, 165 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borbely, A.

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bülthoff, H.

A. Blake and H. Bülthoff, Nature 343, 165 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Faul, F.

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, J. Vision 8, 14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Formankiewicz, M. A.

M. A. Formankiewicz and J. D. Mollon, Vis. Res. 49, 1929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, N.

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helmholtz, H. K. F.

H. K. F. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (Hamburg Voss, 1909).

Howard, I. P.

I. P. Howard, Perception 24, 67 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. J.

Kang, D. H.

D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. H.

D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-I.

Loxley, P. N.

P. N. Loxley and P. A. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 258701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, I.

W. Pieper and I. Ludwig, Perception 31, 185 (2002).

Mausfeld, R.

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, J. Vision 8, 14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

M. A. Formankiewicz and J. D. Mollon, Vis. Res. 49, 1929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, Y.

X. Qin, M. Takamatsu, and Y. Nakashima, Opt. Rev. 16, 404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, N.

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 2005).

Park, H. W.

Pieper, W.

W. Pieper and I. Ludwig, Perception 31, 185 (2002).

Qin, X.

X. Qin, M. Takamatsu, and Y. Nakashima, Opt. Rev. 16, 404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ro, Y. M.

Robertson, A. R.

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 2005).

Robinson, P. A.

P. N. Loxley and P. A. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 258701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schanda, J.

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimono, K.

K. Shimono, S. Shioiri, and H. Yaguchi, Vis. Res. 49, 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shioiri, S.

K. Shimono, S. Shioiri, and H. Yaguchi, Vis. Res. 49, 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sinka, B.

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, H.

Song, J. K.

D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takamatsu, M.

X. Qin, M. Takamatsu, and Y. Nakashima, Opt. Rev. 16, 404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, G.

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, J. Vision 8, 14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

K. Shimono, S. Shioiri, and H. Yaguchi, Vis. Res. 49, 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Displays

P. Bodrogi, B. Sinka, A. Borbely, N. Geiger, and J. Schanda, Displays 23, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

D. H. Kang, E. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, and J. K. Song, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21, 3253 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision

G. Wendt, F. Faul, and R. Mausfeld, J. Vision 8, 14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Blake and H. Bülthoff, Nature 343, 165 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Rev.

X. Qin, M. Takamatsu, and Y. Nakashima, Opt. Rev. 16, 404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perception

I. P. Howard, Perception 24, 67 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Pieper and I. Ludwig, Perception 31, 185 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. N. Loxley and P. A. Robinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 258701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res.

M. A. Formankiewicz and J. D. Mollon, Vis. Res. 49, 1929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimono, S. Shioiri, and H. Yaguchi, Vis. Res. 49, 202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Anstis, Vis. Res. 40, 2551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. K. F. Helmholtz, Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik (Hamburg Voss, 1909).

N. Ohta and A. R. Robertson, Colorimetry, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cases of binocular difference perception: (a) partial occultation, (b) specular reflection, and (c) transparency.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microscopic images of aluminum and diffuser samples. (b) Measured normalized reflective or transmissive luminance of paper, aluminum, and diffuser. (c) Reproduced binocular color difference using 3D display. Box size was 10cm×5cm. (d) Subjective evaluation results of the glossiness of the reproduced images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Examples of the binocular boxes with varying ΔLBi for the second experiments. ΔLBi between the left and right images are 0, 10, 20, and 30, from top to bottom. The reference color (the first set of images) is Color 1 in Table 1. The inset numbers are the corresponding RGB image data. (b), (c) Examples of the binocular boxes with varying ΔCBi and ΔHBi, respectively. (d) Results of the second subjective experiments. The vertical axis is the relative strength of glossiness, or the sequence of the degree of glossiness.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Lena pictures with different hair lightness (Image 5). (b) Average binocular color difference in the nine images sets used in the test. (c) Subjective test results for glossiness rating.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Colors Used in the Second Experiment

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔE=[(L2*L1*)2+(a2*a1*)2+(b2*b1*)2]1/2,
ΔL=L2*L1*
ΔC=[(a2*)2+(b2*)2]1/2[(a1*)2+(b1*)2]1/2.
|ΔH|=[(ΔE)2(ΔL)2(ΔC)2]1/2.

Metrics