Abstract

We demonstrate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect and image an electro-kinetic response: electric-field induced optical changes (EIOC) in soft biological tissues. A low-frequency electric field was applied to ex vivo samples of porcine heart tissues, while OCT signals were acquired continuously. Experimental results show that the amplitude of the OCT signal change is proportional to the amplitude and inversely proportional to the frequency of the applied electric field. We show that the nonconductive component of the sample was eliminated in the normalized EIOC image. To the best our knowledge, this is the first time a two-dimensional image related to the electro-kinetic response of soft tissues is obtained with depth resolution. Since electro-kinetic properties can change during cancerogenesis, EIOC imaging can potentially be used for cancer detection.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Lyklema, Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science (Academic, 2005).
  4. W. Y. Gu, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, in Porous Media: Theory and Experiments (Springer, 1999), Vol. 34, pp. 143–157.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 615 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 629 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Doganay and Y. Xu, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2103–2106.
  12. O. Doganay and Y. Xu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, EL261 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Doganay and Y. Xu, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 59, 552 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 32, 626 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 59, 552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, EL261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 32, 626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 629 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. A. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Akkin, T.

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auger, F. A.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Befus, A. D.

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourdages, M.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delgado, A. V.

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doganay, O.

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 59, 552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, EL261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2103–2106.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duszyk, M.

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, C. A.

C. A. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frank, E. H.

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 629 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 32, 626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Germain, L.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

González-Caballero, F.

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goulet, D.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grodzinsky, A. J.

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 629 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gu, W. Y.

W. Y. Gu, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, in Porous Media: Theory and Experiments (Springer, 1999), Vol. 34, pp. 143–157.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Hunter, R. J.

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jurasz, P.

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Katnik, C.

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koopal, L. K.

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. M.

W. Y. Gu, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, in Porous Media: Theory and Experiments (Springer, 1999), Vol. 34, pp. 143–157.

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyklema, J.

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lyklema, Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science (Academic, 2005).

MacDonald, A. J.

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. F.

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Méthot, S.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, V.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mow, V. C.

W. Y. Gu, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, in Porous Media: Theory and Experiments (Springer, 1999), Vol. 34, pp. 143–157.

Nuccitelli, R.

C. A. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plante, M.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rancourt, D.

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thethi, K.

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waugh, R.

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 59, 552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, EL261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2103–2106.

Youn, J. I.

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

C. Katnik and R. Waugh, Biophys. J. 57, 865 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Chem. Eng. (1)

S. Méthot, V. Moulin, D. Rancourt, M. Bourdages, D. Goulet, M. Plante, F. A. Auger, and L. Germain, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. (1)

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 59, 552 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, EL261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (1)

K. Thethi, P. Jurasz, A. J. MacDonald, A. D. Befus, S. F. Man, and M. Duszyk, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 34, 137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. (2)

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 615 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Frank and A. J. Grodzinsky, J. Biomech. 20, 629 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell Biol. (1)

C. A. Erickson and R. Nuccitelli, J. Cell Biol. 98, 296 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

A. V. Delgado, F. González-Caballero, R. J. Hunter, L. K. Koopal, and J. Lyklema, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309, 194 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neoplasia (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, Neoplasia 2, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, Physiol. Meas. 25, 85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

O. Doganay and Y. Xu, in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 2103–2106.

J. Lyklema, Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science (Academic, 2005).

W. Y. Gu, W. M. Lai, and V. C. Mow, in Porous Media: Theory and Experiments (Springer, 1999), Vol. 34, pp. 143–157.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Time course of a typical OCT signal acquired on a sample before, during (inside the solid square), and after the AC voltage application, (b) same time course after detrending, and (c) Fourier spectrum of three portions of the signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of average EIOC amplitude on: (a) the amplitude and (b) the frequency of the applied voltage.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of the EIOC image processing algorithm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Original OCT image. (b) Unnormalized OCT-based EIOC image. (c) EIOC background image during electric field application. (d) OCT-based EIOC image normalized by the EIOC background image during electric field application.

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