Abstract

High-performance silicon nitride focusing grating couplers with AlCu/TiN reflectors for a visible wavelength (660 nm) have been designed and fabricated in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor pilot line. The influence of the bottom oxide cladding thickness on the grating decay length and efficiency is theoretically and experimentally investigated. It is shown how the metal reflector not only increases the efficiency but also allows reduction of the radiated beam size. Coupling efficiencies above 59% have been measured for compact focusing gratings.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, in Proceedings of 20th Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (2007), pp. 848–849.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Cai and A. W. Poon, Lab Chip 12, 3803 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

2013

2012

D. Feng, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 8265, 826507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, Lab Chip 12, 3803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. Alonso-Ramos, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, Opt. Express 18, 15189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

1977

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 8265, 826507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butschke, J.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

Cai, H.

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, Lab Chip 12, 3803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, in Proceedings of 20th Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (2007), pp. 848–849.

Cassan, E.

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dharkal, A.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Félix Rosa, M.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

Feng, D.

D. Feng, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 8265, 826507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finkelstein, H.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giannone, D.

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, in Proceedings of 20th Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (2007), pp. 848–849.

Gylfason, K. B.

Halir, R.

Hill, D.

Kazmierczak, A.

Komorowska, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Letzkus, F.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

D. Feng, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 8265, 826507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maire, G.

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, in Proceedings of 20th Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (2007), pp. 848–849.

Merget, F.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Morandotti, R.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, Lab Chip 12, 3803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romero-García, S.

Sanchez, B.

Sattler, G.

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sfar Zaoui, W.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

Sohlström, H.

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vogel, W.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

Witzens, J.

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 21, 14036 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, in Proceedings of 20th Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (2007), pp. 848–849.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

Zhong, F.

Appl. Phys.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dharkal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1700 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

H. Cai and A. W. Poon, Lab Chip 12, 3803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 4, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, Nat. Photonics 4, 41 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

D. Feng, B. J. Luff, and M. Asghari, Proc. SPIE 8265, 826507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, in Proceedings of 20th Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) (2007), pp. 848–849.

W. Sfar Zaoui, M. Félix Rosa, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, and F. Letzkus, “High-efficient CMOS-compatible grating couplers with backside metal mirror,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Netherlands, September16, 2012.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D lateral cross section schematic of the GC (top) and TE polarized diffracted field (bottom).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation results for grating directionality and decay length as a function of the bottom and top SiO2 thicknesses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dark field image of the fabricated focusing GCs with metal back-reflector.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output power (left) and decay length (right) of measured gratings as a function of the bottom SiO2 thickness.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Output Power Normalized to the Input Power and Estimated Efficiency for Different LGCs and FGCs

Equations (1)

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Poutput=Pinput·ηov·ηdir2=Pinput·ρ·ηdir.

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