Abstract

This Letter, presents the fabrication of lossy mode resonance (LMR) devices based on titanium dioxide (TiO2)/ poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) coatings deposited on side-polished D-shaped optical fibers. TiO2 thin films have been obtained by means of the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. LbL enables us to produce smooth and homogeneous coatings on the polished side of the fiber. This permits us to couple light from the waveguide to the TiO2-coating/external medium region at specific wavelength ranges. The generation of LMRs depends on the coating thickness, so that thicker coatings can produce more resonances. LMRs are sensitive to the external medium refractive index, which allows its utilization as refractometers. The characteristic D-shaped architecture of the devices employed in this Letter enables us to distinguish TE and TM polarizations, which had not been possible before with regular optical fibers due to their cylindrical symmetry. The results presented here show for the first time the experimental demonstration of the generation of LMRs produced by both TM and TE polarizations. More specifically, for these TiO2/PSS thin films, the TM and TM modes of the LMRs show a wavelength shift of 226 nm for the first-order LMR and 56 nm for the second-order LMR.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

I. Del Villar, M. Hernaez, C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sánchez, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 51, 4298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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D. Razansky, P. D. Einziger, and D. R. Adam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 018101 (2005).
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2004 (1)

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F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. Marciniak, J. Grzegorzewski, and M. Szustakowski, IEE Proc. J. 140, 247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
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R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Opt. 32, 2606 (1993).
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1990 (1)

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D. Razansky, P. D. Einziger, and D. R. Adam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 018101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A. T.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Hernaez, C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sánchez, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 51, 4298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atanasov, P. A.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Batchman, T. E.

Carson, R. F.

Del Villar, I.

I. Del Villar, M. Hernaez, C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sánchez, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 51, 4298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dikovska, A. O.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Einziger, P. D.

D. Razansky, P. D. Einziger, and D. R. Adam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 018101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Valdivielso, C.

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

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M. Marciniak, J. Grzegorzewski, and M. Szustakowski, IEE Proc. J. 140, 247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hernaez, M.

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Hernaez, C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sánchez, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 51, 4298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

Hernáez, M.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karakoleva, E. I.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, S.

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luna-Moreno, D.

Magnusson, R.

Marciniak, M.

M. Marciniak, J. Grzegorzewski, and M. Szustakowski, IEE Proc. J. 140, 247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Hernaez, C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sánchez, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 51, 4298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

Matías, I. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Park, J.

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Razansky, D.

D. Razansky, P. D. Einziger, and D. R. Adam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 018101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roh, S.

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, P.

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

Sánchez, P.

Szustakowski, M.

M. Marciniak, J. Grzegorzewski, and M. Szustakowski, IEE Proc. J. 140, 247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Talavera, D.

Villatoro, J.

Wang, S. S.

Yang, F.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zafirova, B. S.

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zamarreño, C. R.

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, M. Hernaez, C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sánchez, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 51, 4298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, Appl. Opt. 49, 3980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. del Villar, C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernaez, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEE Proc. J. (1)

M. Marciniak, J. Grzegorzewski, and M. Szustakowski, IEE Proc. J. 140, 247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Zamarreño, P. Sanchez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, C. Fernandez-Valdivielso, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1778 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, E. I. Karakoleva, A. O. Dikovska, and P. A. Atanasov, J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 035303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Lee, S. Roh, and J. Park, Opt. Fiber Technol. 15, 209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Razansky, P. D. Einziger, and D. R. Adam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 018101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, M. Hernáez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 155, 290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Zamarreño, S. Lopez, M. Hernaez, I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, Sens. Actuators B 175106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental fabrication setup with light source, detector, and side-polished (D-shaped) single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral response of the fabrication of the device as a function of the number of TiO2/PSS bilayers added onto the fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results obtained with the TiO2/PSS-coated D-type optical fiber that show the separation of the TM and TE mode resonance components with (a) first LMR (after three bilayers fabrication) and (b) second LMR (after 22 bilayers fabrication).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental measurement setup with light source, polarization controller, and detector and details of the TiO2/PSS-coated sensitive region.

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