Abstract

We proposed and demonstrated a fiber-based composite interferometer, which can perform surface profile measurements with sensitivity at the nanometer scale. With the proposed phase-compensation mechanism, the phase deviation due to the instability of the optical delay component and environmental perturbations can be simultaneously compensated. The measurement sensitivity and imaging speed can be significantly improved such that the system can be used as a high-speed, high-resolution, and wide-field dynamical imaging system. The axial precision of the system was examined to be 0.82 nm. High-resolution time-lapsed dynamical imaging of onion cells during dehydration processes were performed with this system with one frame captured in 75 s.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

L. Salas, E. Luna, J. Salinas, V. García, and M. Servín, Opt. Eng. 42, 3307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

X. Su and W. Chen, Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

1991 (2)

P. de Groot and S. Kishner, Appl. Opt. 30, 4026 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abdulhalim, I.

Brun, G.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

X. Su and W. Chen, Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.

de Groot, P.

Deck, L.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

García, V.

L. Salas, E. Luna, J. Salinas, V. García, and M. Servín, Opt. Eng. 42, 3307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, I. J.

Hsu, I.-Jen

I.-Jen Hsu and Cheng-Chung Lai, “System and method for measuring interferences,” U.S. patent7,920,269 (5April2011).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huntley, J. M.

Hybl, O.

Jacquot, M.

Joo, Y. H.

Kim, K. E.

Kim, S. J.

Kishner, S.

Knauer, M. C.

Kuwamura, S.

Lai, C. C.

Lai, Cheng-Chung

I.-Jen Hsu and Cheng-Chung Lai, “System and method for measuring interferences,” U.S. patent7,920,269 (5April2011).

Lee, S. Y.

Leitz, K.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Luna, E.

L. Salas, E. Luna, J. Salinas, V. García, and M. Servín, Opt. Eng. 42, 3307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. G.

Park, Y.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reolon, D.

Richter, C.

Ruiz, P. D.

Safrani, A.

Salas, L.

L. Salas, E. Luna, J. Salinas, V. García, and M. Servín, Opt. Eng. 42, 3307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salinas, J.

L. Salas, E. Luna, J. Salinas, V. García, and M. Servín, Opt. Eng. 42, 3307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Servín, M.

L. Salas, E. Luna, J. Salinas, V. García, and M. Servín, Opt. Eng. 42, 3307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, B. H.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

X. Su and W. Chen, Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Veillas, C.

Verrier, I.

Widjanarko, T.

Wiesner, B.

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, T.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2346 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2144 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fiber-based composite interferometer. L, laser diode; C, collimator; FC, fiber coupler; RM, reflection mirror; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; O, objective; TS, two-axis translation stage; PD1 and PD2, photodetectors. Direction of light transmitting in the Michelson interferometer is indicated with red arrows and in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, is indicated with blue arrows.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interferograms of the Michelson interferometer (red line) and Mach–Zehnder interferometer (blue line). The solid black line represents the voltage used to drive the piezoelectric transducer. (b) Corresponding phases of the two interference signals within the window indicated by the dashed lines in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Test of system measurement accuracy by evaluating the surface height of a stationary reflection mirror in 10,000 continuous scannings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dynamical images of onion cell portions treated with (a) normal saline (Media 1) and (b) high-concentration saline water (Media 2) during dehydration processes.

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