Abstract

We report on the inscription of apodized Bragg grating waveguides (BGWs) in fused silica using a modulated high repetition rate fs laser system. Tailoring of the grating’s coupling strength is facilitated by appropriately substructuring the modulation of the inscribing laser radiation. The proposed alteration delivers an unchanged constant mean refractive index entailing homogeneous guiding properties along the entire waveguide. The BGWs fabricated using a Gaussian apodized modulation profile exhibit a 10 dB improvement in sideband suppression compared to waveguide gratings written with a uniform modulation profile.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Barcelos, S.

C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
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Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H.

Borrelli, N.

Brown, G.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cole, C. M. J.

C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K.

Dekker, P.

Eaton, S.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feced, R.

Fuerbach, A.

Gross, S.

Herman, P.

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
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Kar, A.

Laming, R. I.

C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D.

Loh, W. H.

C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G.

Miura, K.

Monro, T.

Nolte, S.

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[CrossRef]

Piper, J.

Psaila, N.

Streltsov, A.

Sugimoto, N.

Theriault, S.

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

Thomson, R.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

Voigtländer, C.

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. J.

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

Withford, M.

Withford, M. J.

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

Zeil, P.

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

Zervas, M.

Zervas, M. N.

C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. A

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. M. J. Cole, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, M. N. Zervas, and S. Barcelos, Electron. Lett. 31, 1488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, Electron. Lett. 31, 223 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

C. Voigtländer, P. Zeil, J. Thomas, M. Ams, R. J. Williams, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Proc. SPIE 7925, 79250Y (2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup for inscription of waveguide Bragg gratings. Grating period Λ is determined through translation speed v and laser modulation frequency f.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modified modulation signal and corresponding change in effective modulation depth Δn for different a parameters: a=1 (upper graphs), a=0.5 (middle graphs), and a=0 (lower graphs).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of coupling strength κ (circles) and Bragg wavelength λB (squares) on substructuring parameter a.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of 4.4 mm long uniform BGW and an apodized BGW employing a Gaussian apodization function with 4.4 mm FWHM (10 mm total length).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λB=2neffΛ=2neffv/f,
a=(tE1tE2)T/2.
Lapd/2Lapd/2dzκapd(z)=Luniκuni,

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