Abstract

We present a hybrid imaging modality, x-ray luminescence optical tomography (XLOT), in which collimated x-ray beams are used to excite phosphor-based contrast agents. Images are reconstructed from the optical signals, using the known x-ray beam location and spatial extent as priors. We demonstrate XLOT using phantom experiments with deep targets and show that the reconstructed signal varies by <12% when the depth changes from 4.2 to 7.7 mm. For simple source distributions, we find as few as two orthogonal projection measurements are sufficient for XLOT reconstruction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  12. C. Li, A. Martinez Davalos, and S. R. Cherry, Proc. SPIE 8578, 85781B (2013).
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2013 (2)

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, A. Martinez Davalos, and S. R. Cherry, Proc. SPIE 8578, 85781B (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

Y. Tian, W. H. Cao, X. X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 32, 2891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.

Ale, A.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W. H.

Y. Tian, W. H. Cao, X. X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, C.

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, C. M.

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, S. R.

Cong, W. X.

Durairaj, K.

Dutta, J.

Freyer, M.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Tian, W. H. Cao, X. X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M.

Hoffman, E.

Ku, G.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, Y.

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, R. M.

Li, C.

Li, Y.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. X.

Y. Tian, W. H. Cao, X. X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinez Davalos, A.

C. Li, A. Martinez Davalos, and S. R. Cherry, Proc. SPIE 8578, 85781B (2013).
[CrossRef]

McLennan, G.

Mitchell, G. S.

Ntziachristos, V.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Razansky, C. Vinegoni, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 32, 2891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y. J.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pratx, G.

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, X.

Rao, R. P.

Razansky, D.

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarantopoulos, A.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

Sinn, P.

Soehngen, E.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, W. H. Cao, X. X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, L.

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. Y.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xing, L.

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zientkowska, M.

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

R. B. Schulz, A. Ale, A. Sarantopoulos, M. Freyer, E. Soehngen, M. Zientkowska, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 465 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

Y. Tian, W. H. Cao, X. X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. Xiang, B. Han, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, Y. Kuang, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 40, 010701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. H. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. H. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Li, A. Martinez Davalos, and S. R. Cherry, Proc. SPIE 8578, 85781B (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the prototype XLOT imaging system. (b) Emission spectrum of GOS:Eu powder following x-ray excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of a phantom and the scanning scheme. (b) Reconstructed pencil beam CT image for phantom set 1. (c) Reconstructed XLOT images for GOS:Eu concentration of 1mg/ml with 1 projection measurement, (d) 2 projection measurements, and (e) 36 projection measurements. The red circle indicates the actual target location.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reconstructed XLOT images at depths of (a) 4.2 mm, (b) 5.9 mm, and (c) 7.7 mm (phantom set 2). (d) For multiple target case (phantom set 3), reconstructed XLOT image at depth of 4.2 mm. Two projection measurements were used. The red circles indicate the known target location.

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