Abstract

An InGaAs quantum dot (QD) laser diode with 19-stacked QDs separated by 20 nm-thick GaAs spacers was fabricated using an ultrahigh-rate molecular beam epitaxial growth technique, and the laser characteristics were evaluated. A 19-stacked simple broad area QD laser diode was lased at the 1000 nm waveband. A net modal gain of 103cm1 was obtained at 2.25kA/cm2, and the saturated modal gain was 145.6cm1; these are the highest values obtained to our knowledge. These results indicate that using this technique to highly stack QDs is effective for improving the net modal gain of QD lasers.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, Physica E 42, 2735 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, presented at the 2011 Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM2011) P-8-2, Nagoya, Japan, September27–30, 2011.
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    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.
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  22. M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, J. Cryst. Growth 323, 154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, Physica E 42, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Chang, C. C. Wu, and H. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, K.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, J. Cryst. Growth 323, 154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, Physica E 42, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, presented at the 2011 Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM2011) P-8-2, Nagoya, Japan, September27–30, 2011.

Akiyama, T.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Alferov, Z. I.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Zh. I.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Bimberg, D.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blood, P.

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, F. Y.

F. Y. Chang, C. C. Wu, and H. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. X.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebiko, Y.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, A. Y.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, L.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, B. A.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giorgi, M. D.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordeev, N. Y.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hains, C. P.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hatori, N.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Herrmann, E.

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horisaki, Y.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. D.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hyon, C. K.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, M.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Itoh, S.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katouf, R.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawabe, M.

K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

Kim, E. K.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. M.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. W.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kop’ev, P. S.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kopchatov, V. I.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, N.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Ledentsov, N. N.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lifshits, D. A.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. H.

F. Y. Chang, C. C. Wu, and H. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. T.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luna, E.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A. V.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, Y.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Maksimov, M. V.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Markus, A.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martiradonna, L.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maximov, M. V.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikhrin, S.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mikhrin, S. S.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

Nakata, Y.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Newell, T. C.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Y.

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, K.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Novikov, I. I.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohtani, N.

K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paranthoën, C.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. M.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Passaseo, A.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payusov, A. S.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pease, E. A.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Platz, C.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rainx, G.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roh, C. H.

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saeki, Y.

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

Salhi, A.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shernyakov, Y. M.

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shiramine, K.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smowton, P. M.

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Sotobayashi, H.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stintz, A.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, H.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Sugawara, H.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, presented at the 2011 Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM2011) P-8-2, Nagoya, Japan, September27–30, 2011.

Sugawara, M.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Summers, H. D.

P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, D.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takai, H.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Tanoue, F.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, presented at the 2011 Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM2011) P-8-2, Nagoya, Japan, September27–30, 2011.

Tasco, V.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Todaro, M. T.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsatsul’nikov, A. F.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ukhanov, A. A.

A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vittorio, M. D.

A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Wu, C. C.

F. Y. Chang, C. C. Wu, and H. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Yamamoto, N.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, J. Cryst. Growth 323, 154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, Physica E 42, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, presented at the 2011 Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM2011) P-8-2, Nagoya, Japan, September27–30, 2011.

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

Yamamoto, T.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

Yokoyama, N.

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
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Yoshioka, Y.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
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A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
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A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, C. Paranthoën, A. Fiore, C. Platz, and O. Gauthier-Lafaye, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1818 (2003).
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F. Y. Chang, C. C. Wu, and H. H. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4477 (2003).
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A. A. Ukhanov, A. Stintz, P. G. Eliseev, and K. J. Malloy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1058 (2004).
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P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, Y. Ning, H. D. Summers, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2629 (2001).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 931 (1999).
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X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

K. Akahane, N. Ohtani, Y. Okada, and M. Kawabe, J. Cryst. Growth 245, 31 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, J. Cryst. Growth 323, 154 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, R. Katouf, and H. Sotobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG03 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamamoto, K. Akahane, T. Kawanishi, H. Sotobayashi, Y. Yoshioka, and H. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG08 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiramine, Y. Horisaki, D. Suzuki, S. Itoh, Y. Ebiko, S. Muto, Y. Nakata, and N. Yokoyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Kim, Y. J. Park, C. H. Roh, Y. M. Park, E. K. Kim, C. K. Hyon, J. H. Park, and T. W. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 54 (2003).
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A. Salhi, G. Rainx, L. Fortunato, V. Tasco, L. Martiradonna, M. T. Todaro, M. D. Giorgi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, E. Luna, A. Trampert, and M. D. Vittorio, Nanotechnology 19, 275401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 226 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Physica E

K. Akahane and N. Yamamoto, Physica E 42, 2735 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14, 118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Maximov, V. M. Ustinov, A. E. Zhukov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, and A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 105004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Phys. Lett.

I. I. Novikov, N. Y. Gordeev, M. V. Maksimov, A. E. Zhukov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. M. Ustinov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. S. Payusov, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Lifshits, S. S. Mikhrin, and A. R. Kovsh, Tech. Phys. Lett. 34, 1008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Tanaka, M. Ishida, Y. Maeda, T. Akiyama, T. Yamamoto, H. Song, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Nakata, K. Nishi, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWJ1.

H. Sugawara, T. Nakamura, F. Tanoue, Y. Saeki, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and T. Kawanishi, presented at the 37th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2010) FrP22, Takamatsu, Japan, May31–June 4, 2010.

F. Tanoue, H. Sugawara, K. Akahane, and N. Yamamoto, presented at the 2011 Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM2011) P-8-2, Nagoya, Japan, September27–30, 2011.

M. Ishida, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, N. Hatori, H. Sudo, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, 19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM2007), Matsue, Japan, May 14–18, 2007, FrB1-3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PL spectrum (top curve) and EL spectra at four different injection currents of the 600 μm-long device, where Ith=633mA. All spectra were observed at room temperature. GS and ES indicate emissions from the ground state and excited state, respectively. Inset illustrates plan view of the EL sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Threshold current density (closed circles) and wavelength (open circles) of maximum laser emission operated at 2 mW as a function of reciprocal cavity lengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lasing spectra operated at optical output of 2 mW from laser diodes with various cavity lengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modal gain of 19 stacks (circle) and 12 stacks [11] (square) at threshold versus threshold injection current density. The data of 19 stacks (solid line) and 12 stacks (dashed line) were each fitted using Eq. (1). Inset is enlarged view.

Equations (1)

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Γg=Gsat[1exp(γJJtrJtr)],

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