We report on the development of a beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe coupled with a ball lens for enhancing in vivo epithelial tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that by selecting a proper fiber-ball lens distance and beveled angle of collection fibers, the confocal Raman probe design can be optimized for maximizing shallower tissue Raman measurements in epithelial tissue; in addition, the ratio of epithelium to stromal Raman photons collected using an optimized confocal Raman probe is approximately 19-fold higher than that using a volume-type Raman probe. Further experiments confirm that the confocal Raman endoscopic probe developed is in favor of probing superficial tissue Raman signals from a two-layer tissue phantom as well as esophagus tissue in vivo during endoscopy. This work suggests the great potential of applying the beveled fiber-optic confocal Raman probe for improving in vivo diagnosis of precancer occurring in epithelial tissue at endoscopy.
© 2013 Optical Society of AmericaFull Article | PDF Article
Linda Nieman, Alexey Myakov, Jesse Aaron, and Konstantin Sokolov
Appl. Opt. 43(6) 1308-1319 (2004)
Tom Collier, Michele Follen, Anais Malpica, and Rebecca Richards-Kortum
Appl. Opt. 44(11) 2072-2081 (2005)
Richard A. Schwarz, Dizem Arifler, Sung K. Chang, Ina Pavlova, Insiya A. Hussain, Vivian Mack, Bob Knight, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, and Ann M. Gillenwater
Opt. Lett. 30(10) 1159-1161 (2005)