Abstract

We present a technique for frequency shifting scattering induced noise on squeezed light beams, providing immunity from scattered light while preserving the squeezed states. Using a 500 Hz pre and postsqueezing apparatus path length modulation, we show up to a 20 dB reduction in scattering induced noise while recovering squeezing measurement below the shot noise level. Such a technique offers immunity to spurious scattering sources without the need for optically lossy isolation optics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. M. Harry, Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nat. Phys. 7, 962 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).
  4. M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. N. Man, A. Brillet, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. E 11, 19 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 11 (2003).
  13. H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nat. Phys. 7, 962 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. M. Harry, Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 11 (2003).

1992 (1)

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

C. N. Man, A. Brillet, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. E 11, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Billing, H.

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

C. N. Man, A. Brillet, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. E 11, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cerez, P.

C. N. Man, A. Brillet, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. E 11, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. S. Y.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 11 (2003).

Dandridge, A.

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 11 (2003).

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degallaix, J.

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dwyer, S.

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goßler, S.

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M.

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grote, H.

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry, Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hewitson, M.

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hild, S.

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khalaidovski, A.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 11 (2003).

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P.

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lück, H.

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maischberger, K.

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Man, C. N.

C. N. Man, A. Brillet, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. E 11, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M. J.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mavalvala, N.

D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D.

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, K.

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mow-Lowry, C. M.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rüdiger, A.

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, L.

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stefszky, M. S.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Y. Chua, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Opt. Lett. 36, 4680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vahlbruch, H.

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villarruel, C. a.

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (3)

G. M. Harry, Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 145015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, M. Gray, S. Goßler, P. Lam, and D. McClelland, Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S245 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, C. a. Villarruel, C. K. Kirkendall, and A. Dandridge, Electron. Lett. 28, 1803 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, and C. K. Kirkendall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 11 (2003).

J. Opt. A (1)

H. Lück, J. Degallaix, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, and B. Willke, J. Opt. A 10, 085004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (2)

C. N. Man, A. Brillet, and P. Cerez, J. Phys. E 11, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, and A. Rüdiger, J. Phys. E 14, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 677 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Nat. Phys. 7, 962 (2011).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, New J. Phys. 9, 371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 11101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nat. Photonics (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of squeezed light path length modulation experiment. The superposition of backscattered fields is treated as a single source at point Ⓢ, from which the scattered field has some statistical distribution of phase and amplitude. Mirrors Ⓐ and Ⓑ are modulated with the same depth and opposite phase to upshift the scattered light noise frequency sidebands. Squeezing is generated by a traveling wave bow-tie optical parametric oscillator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PSD measurement of the homodyne, normalized to the average shot noise level: (i) shot noise of the local oscillator, (ii) shot noise with intentional scattering in the homodyne detection path, and (iii) shot noise with intentional scattering and path dithering. Calibration of modulation depth was reached when (iii) reached the flat noise level achieved in the absence of scatter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PSD of homodyne measurement of 10 dB squeezing. Trace (i) is a measurement of squeezing with scattered light deliberately increased. Mechanical resonances of 72, 132, and 165 Hz are observed, with a general roll up below 100 Hz. Trace (ii) shows squeezing with path length dithering technique employed, shifting up to 20 dB in roll-up noise. Scattered light is still present in this measurement but now appears reflected about multiples of the 500 Hz modulation frequency. Measurements are normalized to the average shot noise level of trace (iii).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Es(t)=(α¯sqz+δα^sqz(t))eiω0t+ε(t)ei(ω0t+ϕ(t)),
iαLO(δX^sqz+(t)cos(θ)+δX^sqz(t)sin(θ))+ε(t)αLO[sinϕ(t)cosθ+cosϕ(t)sinθ],
Esig(t)=δα^sqzeiω0t+ei2Mcos(Ωmt)ε(t)ei(ω0t+ϕ(t)).
Es(ω)=δα˜sqz(ω)+n=inJn(M)δ(ωnΩmt)*F[ε(t)ei(ω0t+k02x(t))],

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