Abstract

A polarization-insensitive photonic microwave downconverter is proposed and demonstrated, which is comprised of a polarization beam splitter, two Mach–Zehnder modulators (MZMs), and a balanced photodetector. By biasing the MZMs at the quadrature bias points with opposing modulation slopes, the performance of the proposed photonic microwave downconverter is almost independent of the polarization state of the optical microwave signal for down conversion. An experiment is performed, which shows that the polarization dependent loss of the proposed downconverter is less than 0.06 dB. The downconverter is also evaluated in a radio-over-fiber link. A 20 GHz RF signal with 20 MBaud 16 quadrature amplitude modulation baseband data is successfully downconverted to a 1 GHz IF signal. When the polarization state of the input optical microwave signal is adjusted, the variation of the error vector magnitude of the downconverted signal is less than 0.4%.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2006

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. L. Li and P. K. L. Yu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. H. W. Chan, K. E. Alameh, and R. A. Minasian, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Acedo, P.

A. Rubén, C. Criado de Dios, and P. Acedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alameh, K. E.

E. H. W. Chan, K. E. Alameh, and R. A. Minasian, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bohemond, C.

Bohémond, C.

C. Bohémond, A. Sharaiha, T. Rampone, and H. Khaleghi, Electron. Lett. 47, 331 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. H. W.

E. H. W. Chan, K. E. Alameh, and R. A. Minasian, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Chen, Z.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Choi, C. S.

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. Y.

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. D.

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Criado de Dios, C.

A. Rubén, C. Criado de Dios, and P. Acedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hel-molt, C.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hermes, T.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hilbk, U.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Howerton, M.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Huang, H.

Huang, M. H.

Kang, Y. S.

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khaleghi, H.

C. Bohémond, A. Sharaiha, T. Rampone, and H. Khaleghi, Electron. Lett. 47, 331 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

H. J. Kim and J. I. Song, Opt. Express 20, 8047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Song, M. Park, H. J. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. I. Song, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005) pp. 321–324.

Kim, J.

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

H. J. Song, M. Park, H. J. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. I. Song, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005) pp. 321–324.

Li, G. L.

Li, M.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Li, W.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. G.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Magari, K.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Minasian, R. A.

E. H. W. Chan, K. E. Alameh, and R. A. Minasian, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, R.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. L.

Park, M.

H. J. Song, M. Park, H. J. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. I. Song, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005) pp. 321–324.

Pieper, W.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. Q.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rampone, T.

C. Bohemond, T. Rampone, and A. Sharaiha, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Bohémond, A. Sharaiha, T. Rampone, and H. Khaleghi, Electron. Lett. 47, 331 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raub, F.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rubén, A.

A. Rubén, C. Criado de Dios, and P. Acedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharaiha, A.

C. Bohémond, A. Sharaiha, T. Rampone, and H. Khaleghi, Electron. Lett. 47, 331 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Bohemond, T. Rampone, and A. Sharaiha, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. J.

H. J. Song, M. Park, H. J. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. I. Song, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005) pp. 321–324.

Song, J. I.

H. J. Kim and J. I. Song, Opt. Express 20, 8047 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Song, M. Park, H. J. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. I. Song, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005) pp. 321–324.

Voskoboinik, A.

Wang, J.

Wang, L. X.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Westphal, F. J.

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Wu, X.

Xie, L.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

Yao, J. P.

Yu, P. K. L.

Zhang, C.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Zhang, H. T.

Zhu, L.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Zhu, N. H.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. Bohémond, A. Sharaiha, T. Rampone, and H. Khaleghi, Electron. Lett. 47, 331 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Rubén, C. Criado de Dios, and P. Acedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schnabel, U. Hilbk, T. Hermes, P. Meissner, C. Hel-molt, K. Magari, F. Raub, W. Pieper, F. J. Westphal, and R. Ludwig, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Moeller, M. Howerton, W. Burns, K. Williams, and R. Esman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

E. H. W. Chan, K. E. Alameh, and R. A. Minasian, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. G. Liu, X. Q. Qi, and L. Xie, Opt. Commun. 283, 5207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

H. J. Song, M. Park, H. J. Kim, J. S. Lee, and J. I. Song, in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005) pp. 321–324.

Y. Chen, C. Zhang, C. Hong, M. Li, L. Zhu, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, in OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009), pp. 1–2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed polarization-insensitive photonic microwave downconverter and (b) experimental setup for evaluating the performance of the proposed downconverter. PBS, polarization beam splitter; VOA, variable optical attenuator; OTDL, optical tunable delay line; BPD, balanced photodetector; LD, laser diode; PC, polarization controller; PolM, polarization modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Electrical spectrum of the IF signal at the output of the BPD (RBW=300kHz); the measured IF power of the signal as a function of (b) RF power; (c) LO power; and (d) the measured EVM of the IF signal versus the received optical power, insets: constellation diagrams.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ExEy]=(A1ej[(ωcωRF)tϕ(t)]+A0ejωct+A1ej[(ωc+ωRF)t+ϕ(t)])[cosαejφsinα],
{E1=P1/2Ex[ej(β1cosωLOt+3π/2)+1]E2=P2/2Ey[ej(β2cosωLOt+π/2)+1],
IIF=I1I2=R(|E1|2|E2|2)=4RA0A1cos[(ωRFωLO)t+ϕ(t)]×[P1cos2αJ1(β1)+P2sin2αJ1(β2)],
P1J1(β1)=P2J1(β2)=C,
IIF=4CRA0A1cos[(ωRFωLO)t+ϕ(t)].
[ExEy]=(A0ejωct+A1ej[(ωc+ωRF)t+ϕ(t)])[cosαejφsinα].
IIF=2CRA0A1cos[(ωRFωLO)t+ϕ(t)].
PDL=10log10max{P2J1(β2)P1J1(β1),P1J1(β1)P2J1(β2)}.

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