Abstract

A 19-cell hollow-core photonic crystal fiber reaching 1.8±0.5dB/km loss at 1530 nm is reported. Despite expanded corner holes in the first ring adjacent to the core, and only five cladding rings, the minimum loss is close to the previously published record of 1.7dB/km at a comparable wavelength, achieved in a fiber with seven cladding rings. Since each additional cladding ring requires a significant increase in fabrication time and complexity, it is highly desirable to use as few as possible while still achieving low loss. Modeling results confirm that further reducing cladding deformations would yield only a small decrease in loss. This demonstrates that loss comparable to the previously demonstrated lowest-loss bandgap fibers can be achieved with fiber structures that are significantly simpler and faster to fabricate.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.
  3. J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.
  5. M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.
  6. F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 87 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Sabert, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 4 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 4RN, Oxon, England (personal communication, 2011).

2013

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

Babic, F.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

Baddela, N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baddela, N. K.

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Burger, S.

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Coupland, S.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Farr, L.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Flea, R.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Fokoua, E. N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frosz, M. H.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

Gray, D. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Hayes, J. R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Klose, R.

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Langford, A.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Lawman, M.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Li, Z.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Mason, M.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Mason, M. W.

Nold, J.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

Numkam, E.

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Petrovich, M. N.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Poletti, F.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Pomplun, J.

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rammler, S.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

Richardson, D. J.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Roberts, P. J.

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Sabert, H.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Sabert, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 4 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 4RN, Oxon, England (personal communication, 2011).

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Schmidt, F.

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Stefani, A.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

Tomlinson, A.

Weiss, T.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

Wheeler, N. V.

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Williams, D. P.

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Wooler, J. P.

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

Zschiedrich, L.

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

F. Benabid and P. J. Roberts, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, M. N. Petrovich, N. Baddela, E. N. Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, D. R. Gray, Z. Li, R. Slavik, and D. J. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 7, 279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Status Solidi A

J. Pomplun, L. Zschiedrich, R. Klose, F. Schmidt, and S. Burger, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. N. Petrovich, N. K. Baddela, N. V. Wheeler, E. Numkam, R. Slavík, D. R. Gray, J. R. Hayes, J. P. Wooler, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1J.3.

M. H. Frosz, J. Nold, T. Weiss, A. Stefani, S. Rammler, F. Babic, and P. St. J. Russell, in Frontiers in Optics Postdeadline Session III (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FW6C.5.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

H. Sabert, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 4 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 4RN, Oxon, England (personal communication, 2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cut-back data points (blue points) at a wavelength of 1530 nm for PCF  1. The dotted green line was found using robust linear regression, and has a slope of 1.8 dB / km with a standard error of ± 0.5 dB / km . Note that robust regression is inherently less sensitive than least-squares regression to outliers such as the first two data points. The initial fiber length was 505 m. Inset: scanning electron micrograph of PCF  1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron micrographs of PCFs 2–5. Note that some defects (broken or deformed glass walls) are caused by cleaving.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Loss measured from cut-back measurements of PCFs 1–5. The lighter colored lines above and below each darker line indicate the estimated measurement error range.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top: two of the five-ring structures used for the loss calculations shown below. The glass wall thicknesses are exaggerated for visual clarity. Bottom: calculated loss for the ideal structure (black, solid), and deformed structure with four (blue, dashed), five (green, dotted), and six (red, dash-dotted) cladding rings. The structural parameters are chosen to closely match those of PCF 1: pitch is 4.2 μm, and cladding strut thickness is 110 nm. Core surround thickness in ideal fiber is 110 nm; in the deformed fiber it is 40 nm at the corner holes and 170 nm elsewhere, and the junction radius is 210 nm, while the corner radii may vary.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Structural and Loss Parameters of the Fibers Investigated Here (1–5), and the Fiber (6*) from [2]

Metrics