Abstract

We report low-noise microwave synthesis from radiation with a frequency of 0.3 THz using a photocarrier frequency comb in a photoconductive antenna. The synthesized microwave signal at 1 GHz is phase coherent to the 0.3 THz radiation and has a fractional instability of 1×1015 within 300 s averaging times and single-sideband phase noise of 105dB/Hz at a 100 Hz offset from the carrier. This terahertz (THz)-to-microwave synthesizer is capable of being a THz frequency divider, which would be indispensable to not only THz metrology but also future high-speed wireless networks.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Kajita, G. Gopakumar, M. Abe, and M. Hada, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Füser, R. Judaschke, and M. Bieler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Lett. 36, 3969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Yee, Y. Jang, Y. Kim, and D.-C. Seo, Opt. Lett. 35, 2532 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Mochizuki, M. Uchino, and T. Morikawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 1887 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, Comput. Netw. 50, 2127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Kawase, Opt. Photon. News, 15, 34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 723749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, IEEE Pers. Commun. 6, 13 (1999).

1972

P. R. Bunker, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 42, 478 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

M. Kajita, G. Gopakumar, M. Abe, and M. Hada, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, Comput. Netw. 50, 2127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Barbieri, S.

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Lett. 36, 3969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bartolini, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bieler, M.

H. Füser, R. Judaschke, and M. Bieler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

Bunker, P. R.

P. R. Bunker, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 42, 478 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Consolino, L.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 723749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Füser, H.

H. Füser, R. Judaschke, and M. Bieler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gopakumar, G.

M. Kajita, G. Gopakumar, M. Abe, and M. Hada, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hada, M.

M. Kajita, G. Gopakumar, M. Abe, and M. Hada, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 723749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y.

Judaschke, R.

H. Füser, R. Judaschke, and M. Bieler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kajita, M.

M. Kajita, G. Gopakumar, M. Abe, and M. Hada, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karshenboim, S. G.

S. G. Karshenboim and E. Peik, Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants (Springer, 2004).

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, Opt. Photon. News, 15, 34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Kim, Y.

Lampin, J.-F.

Lee, W.-Y.

I. F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, Comput. Netw. 50, 2127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Maguire, G. Q.

J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, IEEE Pers. Commun. 6, 13 (1999).

Maineult, W.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

Mitola, J.

J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, IEEE Pers. Commun. 6, 13 (1999).

Mochizuki, K.

K. Mochizuki, M. Uchino, and T. Morikawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 1887 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, S.

I. F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, Comput. Netw. 50, 2127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, T.

K. Mochizuki, M. Uchino, and T. Morikawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 1887 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, R.

Nose, M.

Peik, E.

S. G. Karshenboim and E. Peik, Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants (Springer, 2004).

Ravaro, M.

Ritchie, D.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Lett. 36, 3969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D.-C.

Sirtori, C.

M. Ravaro, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, K. Blary, J.-F. Lampin, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Lett. 36, 3969 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taschin, A.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, M.

K. Mochizuki, M. Uchino, and T. Morikawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 1887 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M. S.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vuran, M. C.

I. F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, Comput. Netw. 50, 2127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 723749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yee, D. S.

Yokoyama, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Füser, R. Judaschke, and M. Bieler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw.

I. F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, Comput. Netw. 50, 2127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Pers. Commun.

J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, IEEE Pers. Commun. 6, 13 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

K. Mochizuki, M. Uchino, and T. Morikawa, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 1887 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

P. R. Bunker, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 42, 478 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Nat. Photonics 4, 636 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

K. Kawase, Opt. Photon. News, 15, 34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. Kajita, G. Gopakumar, M. Abe, and M. Hada, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 723749 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. G. Karshenboim and E. Peik, Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants (Springer, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of THz-to-microwave synthesis. PCA, photoconductive antenna; I/V, current-to-voltage converter; PLL, phase-locked loop; BPF, band-pass filter; f, frequency; t, time; I, current; P, light power; and V, voltage. The superscript (PC) indicates the photocarrier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for THz-to-microwave synthesis. PCA, photoconductive antenna; LNA, low-noise amplifier; PD, photodiode; BPF, band-pass filter; PZT, piezo-electric transducer; and DDS, direct digital synthesizer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectra of the heterodyne beat signal between the 0.3 THz oscillator and THz comb, and (b) 1 GHz microwave signal synthesized from the 0.3 THz cw radiation. The insets show each spectrum in higher resolution. Note that the THz oscillator and THz comb have a common microwave reference.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Allan standard deviation of the instability of the 1 GHz microwave signal synthesized from the cw-THz radiation and (c) that of fbeat phase-locked loop (c). (b) The relative instability of two rf synthesizers is also plotted for comparison.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SSB phase noise spectra of various microwave signals relative to rf synthesizer 2. (a) 1 GHz signal synthesized from 0.3 THz cw radiation, (b) rf synthesizer 1 used in frequency multiplier chain, and (c) detection limit measured by using common 1 GHz signal from synthesizer 2.

Equations (1)

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frep(PC)=(fcw(PC)fbeat(PC))/k,

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