Abstract

We demonstrate an optical frequency standard based on rubidium vapor loaded within a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. We use the S1/25D5/25 two-photon transition, excited with two lasers at 780 and 776 nm. The sum-frequency of these lasers is stabilized to this transition using modulation transfer spectroscopy, demonstrating a fractional frequency stability of 9.8×1012 at 1 s. The current performance limitations are presented, along with a path to improving the performance by an order of magnitude. This technique will deliver a compact, robust standard with potential applications in commercial and industrial environments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Lurie, F. N. Baynes, J. D. Anstie, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, T. M. Stace, and A. N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 36, 4776 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Knabe, S. Wu, J. Lim, K. A. Tillman, P. S. Light, N. Wheeler, F. Couny, R. Thapa, A. M. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, B. R. Washburn, F. Benabid, and K. L. Corwin, Opt. Express 17, 16017 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Bjorkholm and P. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 14, 751 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. Orozco, Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, Opt. Lett. 31, 3574 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Camy, C. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 41, 325 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ovchinnikov and G. Marra, Metrologia 48, 87 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

A. Lurie, F. N. Baynes, J. D. Anstie, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, T. M. Stace, and A. N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 36, 4776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ovchinnikov and G. Marra, Metrologia 48, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. Orozco, Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. Camy, C. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 41, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. Bjorkholm and P. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 14, 751 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anstie, J.

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anstie, J. D.

Baynes, F. N.

Benabid, F.

Biraben, F.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J.

J. Bjorkholm and P. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 14, 751 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C.

G. Camy, C. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 41, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Calosso, C. E.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camy, G.

G. Camy, C. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 41, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Debeauvoir, B.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Delporte, J.

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

G. Camy, C. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 41, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Esnault, F.

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. M.

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knabe, K.

Knappe, S.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levi, F.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P.

J. Bjorkholm and P. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 14, 751 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L.-A.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Light, P.

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Londero, P.

K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A.

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

Lurie, A.

Marra, G.

Y. Ovchinnikov and G. Marra, Metrologia 48, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Micalizio, S.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Millerioux, Y.

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Orozco, L.

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. Orozco, Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Y.

Y. Ovchinnikov and G. Marra, Metrologia 48, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Galván, A.

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. Orozco, Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perrella, C.

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rossetto, N.

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saha, K.

K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, D.

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. Orozco, Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stace, T. M.

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lurie, F. N. Baynes, J. D. Anstie, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, T. M. Stace, and A. N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 36, 4776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thapa, R.

Tillman, K. A.

Touahri, D.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, V.

K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

Wheeler, N.

Wu, S.

Adv. Space Res. (1)

F. Esnault, N. Rossetto, D. Holleville, J. Delporte, and N. Dimarcq, Adv. Space Res. 47, 854 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys J. (1)

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, Eur. Phys J. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Metrologia 49, 425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ovchinnikov and G. Marra, Metrologia 48, 87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Camy, C. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, Opt. Commun. 41, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Millerioux, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, A. Clairon, R. Felder, F. Biraben, and B. Debeauvoir, Opt. Commun. 108, 91 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. Bjorkholm and P. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 14, 751 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Sheng, A. Pérez Galván, and L. Orozco, Phys. Rev. A 78, 062506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Saha, V. Venkataraman, P. Londero, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. A 83, 033833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Perrella, P. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, F. Benabid, and A. Luiten, Phys. Rev. A 87, 013818 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Two-photon transition energy level diagram. Solid arrows are driving lasers, dashed arrows show decay routes. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the kagome HC-PCF used. (c) Schematic of the experimental setup. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; SMF, single-mode fiber; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; DG, diffraction grating; PMT, photomultiplier tube; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fractional frequency stability of the standard, when free-running and locked, and alignment fluctuation frequency noise.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Stability Limits at τ=1s and Frequency Shifts

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