Abstract

In this Letter, a vision-based remote sensing methodology is proposed to measure the topography of weld pool surfaces from one single view. Thermal radiations emitted by the hot liquid metal at a wavelength within the arc plasma blind spectral window are acquired by a wavefront division polarimetric system. The refractive index of the liquid metal and the topography of the weld pool surface are inferred from the polarimetric state of the thermal radiations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

2010 (1)

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

H. S. Song and Y. M. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3751 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

L. B. Wolff, Image Vis. Comput. 15, 81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Kovacevic and Y. M. Zhang, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 210, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 439 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1926 (1)

Abdullah, B. M.

B. M. Abdullah, in Semiconductor Laser Diode Technology and Applications, D. S. Patil, ed. (InTech, 2012), Chap. 14, pp. 241–262.

Al-Bayat, F.

C. Mnich, F. Al-Bayat, C. Debrunner, J. P. H. Steele, and T. Vincent, in Proceedings of 2004 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation (ASME, 2004).

Bertilone, D. C.

Chellappa, R.

R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 439 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

Dahmani, R.

K. P. Gurton, R. Dahmani, and G. Videen, “Measured degree of infrared polarization for a variety of thermal emitting surfaces,” ARL-TR-3240 (2004).

Debrunner, C.

C. Mnich, F. Al-Bayat, C. Debrunner, J. P. H. Steele, and T. Vincent, in Proceedings of 2004 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation (ASME, 2004).

Ferraton, M.

Frankot, R. T.

R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 439 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. L.

Gorria, P.

Gurton, K. P.

K. P. Gurton, R. Dahmani, and G. Videen, “Measured degree of infrared polarization for a variety of thermal emitting surfaces,” ARL-TR-3240 (2004).

Hamann, H. F.

Heidrich, W.

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ihrke, I.

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikecuhi, K.

Ingvarsson, S.

Jordan, D. L.

Klein, L. J.

Kovacevic, R.

R. Kovacevic and Y. M. Zhang, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 210, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kutulakos, K. N.

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lensch, H. P. A.

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G.

Magnor, M.

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meriaudeau, F.

Miyazaki, D.

Mnich, C.

C. Mnich, F. Al-Bayat, C. Debrunner, J. P. H. Steele, and T. Vincent, in Proceedings of 2004 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation (ASME, 2004).

Morel, O.

Saito, M.

Sato, Y.

Shaw, J. A.

Sievers, A. J.

Song, H. S.

H. S. Song and Y. M. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3751 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J. P. H.

C. Mnich, F. Al-Bayat, C. Debrunner, J. P. H. Steele, and T. Vincent, in Proceedings of 2004 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation (ASME, 2004).

Stolz, C.

Tyo, S. J.

Videen, G.

K. P. Gurton, R. Dahmani, and G. Videen, “Measured degree of infrared polarization for a variety of thermal emitting surfaces,” ARL-TR-3240 (2004).

Vincent, T.

C. Mnich, F. Al-Bayat, C. Debrunner, J. P. H. Steele, and T. Vincent, in Proceedings of 2004 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation (ASME, 2004).

Weast, R. C.

R. C. Weast, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 69th ed. (CRC Press, 1989), p. E-405.

Wolff, L. B.

L. B. Wolff, Image Vis. Comput. 15, 81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Worthing, A. G.

Zhang, Y. M.

H. S. Song and Y. M. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3751 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kovacevic and Y. M. Zhang, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 210, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Graph. Forum (1)

I. Ihrke, K. N. Kutulakos, H. P. A. Lensch, M. Magnor, and W. Heidrich, Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2400 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 439 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

L. B. Wolff, Image Vis. Comput. 15, 81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. S. Song and Y. M. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3751 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. (1)

R. Kovacevic and Y. M. Zhang, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 210, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Mnich, F. Al-Bayat, C. Debrunner, J. P. H. Steele, and T. Vincent, in Proceedings of 2004 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation (ASME, 2004).

K. P. Gurton, R. Dahmani, and G. Videen, “Measured degree of infrared polarization for a variety of thermal emitting surfaces,” ARL-TR-3240 (2004).

R. C. Weast, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 69th ed. (CRC Press, 1989), p. E-405.

B. M. Abdullah, in Semiconductor Laser Diode Technology and Applications, D. S. Patil, ed. (InTech, 2012), Chap. 14, pp. 241–262.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Wavefront division polarimetric system and (b) raw focal-plane image (1200×1600 pixels) showing four polarization channels at indicated orientation α.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Snapshot of weld pool during GTA welding with helium shielding gas (a) illuminated by Cavilux source and (b) 810 nm near-infrared emission for convex weld pool surface. Indications are (1) electrode tip reflection, (2) dot pattern and (3) its reflection, and (4) arc plasma-weld pool interaction zone.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Range of possible refractive index (n,k) and corresponding calculated temperature at weld pool edge.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated topography of (a) convex weld pool shown in Fig. 1(a) and (b) concave weld pool.

Equations (11)

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{I(α)=12·(S0+S1cos2α+S2sin2α)I(α)=I2·(1+ρ·cos(2α2φ)),
n⃗={z(x,y)xz(x,y)y1={p=tanθ·cosϕq=tanθ·sinϕ1.
ϕ=φ+{π0=12arctan(S2S1)+{π0.
ϕ=φsgn(S1)+12·π,
ρ=S12+S22S0.
{ε=4ncosθ(n2+k2)cos2θ+2ncosθ+1ε=4ncosθcos2θ+2ncosθ+n2+k2,
ρ=εεε+ε=[n2+k21](1cos2θ)[1+n2+k2](1+cos2θ)+4ncosθ.
ρ=sin2θ2sin2θ,
LWP(λ,n,k,T,θ)=ε(λ,θ,n,k)·LBB(λ,T)
T=h·cλ·kB·T·ln(1+2·h·c2·ελ5·LWP),
L=0.1298·S00.6619.

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