A splitting of modes in a cylindrical graded-index optical fiber is demonstrated by solving the full Maxwell equations using the perturbation analysis. It is shown that the degeneracy of vortex Laguerre–Gauss modes with distinct orbital angular momentum and polarization (spin) but the same total angular momentum is lifted due to the spin–orbit (vector) and tensor forces. Numerical estimations of group delays of modes in optical fiber and frequency splitting in Fabry–Perot and ring resonators are presented.
© 2013 Optical Society of America
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