Abstract

We examine mode couplings in chiral fiber grating (CFG) with N-fold rotation symmetry in the cross section and show how the angular momentum matching condition in couplings determines the generation and conversion of orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. Then we discuss interactions of OAM and spin angular momentum in single- and double-helix long-period CFGs excited by the fundamental core modes. Subsequently, taking right-handed elliptic-core long-period CFGs as example, we demonstrate a dual-OAM converter generating OAM beams with charge +2 and charge +4 at dual wavelengths, both with a conversion efficiency greater than 97%, as well as a broadband converter based on adiabatic coupling, with a bandwidth about 10 nm for a conversion efficiency greater than 95%.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 43604 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Alexeyev, A. Volyar, and M. Yavorsky, in Lasers, Optics and Electro-Optics Research Trends (Nova, 2007), Chap. 5.
  6. C. N. Alexeyev, Appl. Opt. 51, 6125 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. L. Yang, L. L. Xue, C. Li, J. Su, and J. R. Qian, Opt. Express 19, 2251 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

A. N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Lett. 37, 2451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Alexeyev, Appl. Opt. 51, 6125 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 43604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alexeyev, C.

C. Alexeyev, A. Volyar, and M. Yavorsky, in Lasers, Optics and Electro-Optics Research Trends (Nova, 2007), Chap. 5.

Alexeyev, C. N.

Alhassen, F.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 43604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bozinovic, A. N.

Chao, N.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Churikov, V. M.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dashti, P. Z.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 43604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S. J.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Golowich, S.

Han, Z.

H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. S.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, P.

Lee, H. P.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 43604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Love, J.

W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983).

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neugroschl, D.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J. R.

Ramachandran, S.

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singer, J.

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W.

W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983).

Su, J.

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Volyar, A.

C. Alexeyev, A. Volyar, and M. Yavorsky, in Lasers, Optics and Electro-Optics Research Trends (Nova, 2007), Chap. 5.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Wong, G. K. L.

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xue, L. L.

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

Yang, L.

H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, L. L. Xue, C. Li, J. Su, and J. R. Qian, Opt. Express 19, 2251 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yavorsky, M.

C. Alexeyev, A. Volyar, and M. Yavorsky, in Lasers, Optics and Electro-Optics Research Trends (Nova, 2007), Chap. 5.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, J.-Y. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 3645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, and M. Tur, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Nat. Phys. 3, 305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Xu, L. Yang, Z. Han, and J. Qian, Opt. Commun. 291, 207 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 43604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

V. I. Kopp, V. M. Churikov, J. Singer, N. Chao, D. Neugroschl, and A. Z. Genack, Science 305, 74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Science 337, 446 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Alexeyev, A. Volyar, and M. Yavorsky, in Lasers, Optics and Electro-Optics Research Trends (Nova, 2007), Chap. 5.

W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of a ellipse core CFG. (The core and cladding are not drawn to scale.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectrum of the LCP core mode in the right-handed elliptic-core L-CFG, (a) power conversion in coupling with HE31,cl+ for generating OAM beam with charge +2, (b) power conversion in coupling with EH31,cl+ for generating OAM beam with charge +4, (c) output beam profile, (d) interferogram of OAM beam with charge +2, (e) output beam profile, and (f) interferogram of OAM beam with charge +4.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Transmission spectrum of the RCP core mode and the generated EH11,cl+ mode in the right-handed elliptic-core L-CFG, (b) output beam profile, and (c) interferogram of OAM beam with charge +2.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Charges of the SAM, OAM, and AM of Fiber Modes

Tables Icon

Table 2. Mode Coupling Rules in L-N-CFGs for Copropagating Mode Couplings Involving OAM Conversiona

Tables Icon

Table 3. All Possibly Generated Cladding Modes in Copropagating Core and Cladding Mode Couplings in L-N-CFGs

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

HEmn±=HEmne±jHEmnoFm1,n(x^±jy^)e±j(m1)ϕEHmn±=EHmne±jEHmnoFm+1,n(x^jy^)e±j(m+1)ϕ,m1V0n±=TM0njTE0nF1n(x^±jy^)ejϕ,
β1β2+Nκu=0,M1M2N=0

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