Abstract

An interesting anisotropy phenomenon in femtosecond laser processing of crystalline silicon is revealed by changing the angle between the writing direction and the laser polarization. The experimental results indicate the surface patterning is dependent on the laser polarization direction, showing that it is beneficial to forming continuous, ordered, and better-controlled ripples when the writing direction is parallel to the laser polarization. The anisotropy is attributed mainly to the elliptical shape of the induced ripples. The formation mechanisms of the elliptical ripples are also discussed. This observation promotes the fabrication of self-assembled subwavelength structures, which is important for electro-optic devices.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

2011

2010

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Lett. 35, 1662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han and S. Qu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 495, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Lett. 29, 119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
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2002

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
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P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
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B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
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Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
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Barthel, E.

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
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Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

Bolivar, P. H.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bounhalli, M.

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Lett. 29, 119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colombier, J.

Dugan, M.

Faure, N.

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garrelie, F.

Gecevicius, M.

Han, Y.

Y. Han and S. Qu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 495, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, P. J. Liu, X. L. Yan, N. Leng, C. C. Xu, H. Xiao, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Lett. 37, 2781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Express 21, 3959 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Lett. 35, 1662 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Lett. 29, 119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuttge, M.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leng, N.

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liu, P. J.

Lou, K.

Lu, Y.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, F.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. X.

Qiu, J.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

Y. Han and S. Qu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 495, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. C.

Reynaud, S.

Rivas, J. G.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Starrost, F.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takebe, H.

Tonchev, S.

Tsai, H.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

Wang, C.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, X. L.

Xiao, H.

L. Jiang, P. J. Liu, X. L. Yan, N. Leng, C. C. Xu, H. Xiao, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Lett. 37, 2781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. C.

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. L.

Yang, W.

M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, Opt. Express 21, 3959 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, Appl. Phys. A 74, 19 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. Han and S. Qu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 495, 241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

Y. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, and H. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 256804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of the patterns written on the sample surface. (a), (c), and (e) are written at θ=0°; (b), (d), and (f) are written at θ=90°. The writing speeds are labeled on the images, and the scale bars are 2 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Average linewidth as a function of the writing speed at θ=0°, 45°, 90°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of the continuity parameter K against the angle θ at different writing speeds.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) SEM images of the structures induced by different numbers of laser shots. The scale bar is 1 μm. (b) Change of the elliptical shape (long axis/minor axis) with the pulse number. (c) Schematic illustration of the direct writing process.

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