Abstract

Highly aspheric reflective micro-optics for the generation of quasi-nondiffracting beams are of great interest for a wide variety of applications. However, up to now it was impossible to fabricate tunable arrays of these elements. In this Letter, we demonstrate the first array of purely reflective tunable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microaxicon mirrors with a conical shape and a continuous surface. The actuation is achieved by thermal expansion in a solid state design and the tuning range allows for large conical angles and is able to form concave as well as convex axicons. The deflection of the mirror surface and the propagation of the resulting quasi-Bessel beams have been characterized to prove the functionality of the device.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

F. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, M. K. Bhuyan, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, Opt. Lett. 34, 3163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Milne, G. D. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agate, B.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhuyan, M. K.

Bock, M.

Borra, E. F.

Brousseau, D.

Brown, C. T. A.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brrner, P.

Brunne, J.

J. Brunne, R. Grunwald, and U. Wallrabe, in Proceedings of the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1558–1561.

M. Pauls, J. Brunne, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, in Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 116–117.

Chattrapiban, N.

Chiu, D. T.

G. Milne, G. D. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cofield, D.

Comrie, M.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

Das, S. K.

Dholakia, K.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, M.

Draheim, J.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drapeau, J.

Dudley, J. M.

Fahrbach, F.

F. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, C.

Furfaro, L.

Garces-Chavez, V.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

M. Bock, S. K. Das, C. Fischer, M. Diehl, P. Brrner, and R. Grunwald, Opt. Lett. 37, 1154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Brunne, R. Grunwald, and U. Wallrabe, in Proceedings of the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1558–1561.

M. Pauls, J. Brunne, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, in Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 116–117.

Hill, I. I. I.

Jacquot, M.

Jeffries, G. D.

G. Milne, G. D. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamberger, R.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacourt, P.-A.

McGloin, D.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michel, B.

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milne, G.

G. Milne, G. D. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pauls, M.

M. Pauls, J. Brunne, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, in Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 116–117.

Pich, M.

Rogers, E. A.

Rohrbach, A.

F. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, F.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

F. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. J.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsampoula, X.

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallrabe, U.

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pauls, J. Brunne, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, in Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 116–117.

J. Brunne, R. Grunwald, and U. Wallrabe, in Proceedings of the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1558–1561.

Wendell, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Milne, G. D. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Tsampoula, V. Garces-Chavez, M. Comrie, D. J. Stevenson, B. Agate, and C. T. A. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 53902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, Contemp. Phys. 46, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

H. Schmid and B. Michel, Macromolecules 33, 3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, Nat. Photonics 4, 780 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, and U. Wallrabe, Sens. Actuators A 151, 95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Brunne, R. Grunwald, and U. Wallrabe, in Proceedings of the 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1558–1561.

M. Pauls, J. Brunne, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, in Proceedings of 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (ISOT) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 116–117.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Working principle of the device and micrograph of a 2×2 array of axicons with 1 mm diameter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement of the mirror angle and the mean absolute deviation from the ideal cone in the range of 0.15·rmax<r<0.95·rmax. The error bars indicate the standard deviation of the four axicons on one chip.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

White-light interferometric measurement of a tunable axicon with 1 mm diameter for two temperatures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity distribution along the optical axis for different chip temperatures. The brightness is displayed with a logarithmic scaling. The inset shows the measured sensor signal at z=27mm for T=10°C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Maximum intensity Imax and width of the central maximum wmax at 30°C compared to the values predicted for an ideal axicon.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Maximum intensity Imax and width of the central maximum wmax for different temperatures compared to the values predicted for an ideal axicon.

Equations (2)

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γtotal=γpoly+3αmono(TRTTcure);TRT=23°C,
β(T)=tanΔh(T)rmaxβmold(γtotal+3αc(TTRT)).

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