Abstract

Previously reported simulations have suggested that depositing thin layers of metal over the surface of a single-mode, etched air hole photonic crystal (PhC) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) could potentially improve the laser’s side-mode suppression ratio by introducing additional losses to the higher-order modes. This work demonstrates the concept by presenting the results of a 30 nm thin film of Cr deposited on the surface of an implant-confined PhC VCSEL. Both experimental measurements and simulation results are in agreement showing that the single-mode operation is improved at the same injection current ratio relative to threshold.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760N-1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2005

1997

M. Mansuripur and G. Sincerbox, Proc. IEEE 85, 1780 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

F. Koyama, K. Morito, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arbabi, A.

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760N-1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K.

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

Cunningham, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Danner, A. J.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

Dems, M.

Ebeling, K. J.

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, U.

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, L. L.

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760N-1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, B. G.

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760N-1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasebe, K.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Hibbs-Brenner, M.

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

F. Koyama, K. Morito, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kakitsuka, T.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Kasten, A.

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasten, A. M.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kotynski, R.

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama, K. Morito, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leisher, P. O.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

M. Mansuripur and G. Sincerbox, Proc. IEEE 85, 1780 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Möller, B.

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morito, K.

F. Koyama, K. Morito, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Nozaki, K.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Panajotov, K.

Patil, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raftery, J. J.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

Reiner, G.

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Sincerbox, G.

M. Mansuripur and G. Sincerbox, Proc. IEEE 85, 1780 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siriani, D. F.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sulkin, J. D.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

Takeda, K.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Tan, M. P.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

Taniyama, H.

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

Wiedenmann, D.

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Tech.

K. D. Choquette, D. F. Siriani, A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, J. J. Raftery, and A. J. Danner, Adv. Opt. Tech. 2012, 280920 (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, A. M. Kasten, K. D. Choquette, and L. L. Goddard, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 160 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Koyama, K. Morito, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Kasten, D. F. Siriani, M. Hibbs-Brenner, K. Johnson, and K. Choquette, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1648 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 357 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

U. Fiedler, B. Möller, G. Reiner, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

M. Mansuripur and G. Sincerbox, Proc. IEEE 85, 1780 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

B. G. Griffin, A. Arbabi, and L. L. Goddard, Proc. SPIE 8276, 82760N-1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.1.E.2.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional diagram of the PhC VCSEL structure used for the simulations and the experimental measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field profiles generated by the simulation of the normalized electric field contained in the PhC for the (a) fundamental mode and (b) first-order mode. Lateral dimensions are labeled in micrometers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated SMSR versus current normalized to threshold for the PhC VCSEL with and without Cr.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectra before and after Cr deposition at relative current I/Ith=1.1, showing the improvement in SMSR with the addition of Cr.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured SMSR versus current normalized to threshold for the PhC VCSEL with and without Cr.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Layer Structure for the PhC VCSEL

Tables Icon

Table 2. Simulated Mirror Loss Values for the Fundamental and First-Order Modes with and without Cr Deposited

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SMSR(dB)10·log10[Δα+ΔgδG+1]Δα+Δg=αm(λ1)αm(λ0)+Γg(λ0)Γg(λ1)1δG=(IIth1)·(1(αi+αm(λ0))βspηr).

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