Abstract

We report the inscription of low-loss fiber Bragg gratings using focused femtosecond (fs) pulses and a continuous core-scanning technique. This direct-write technique produces high-fidelity Type I-IR gratings that share the inherent advantages of other direct-write methods, such as the point-by-point (PbP) method, for which the grating period is a free parameter. However, here we demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in scattering loss compared to PbP gratings, to a level comparable with that of phase-mask-based fs inscription. A first-order grating was inscribed in standard telecommunications fiber with 49dB transmission at the Bragg wavelength and 0.1dB broadband scattering loss. Potential application of these gratings to large-mode-area fibers and chirped grating fabrication are highlighted.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1672 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 32, 2804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 7714 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, Opt. Lett. 28, 995 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 19844 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, Opt. Express 13, 5377 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. U. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, Proc. SPIE 7589, 75890J (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Chah, D. Kinet, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, Opt. Lett. 38, 594 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 7714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 18, 19844 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, Proc. SPIE 7589, 75890J (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 32, 2804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Åslund, M.

Åslund, M. L.

Becker, R. G.

Bennion, I.

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Caucheteur, C.

Chah, K.

Clausnitzer, T.

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Dubov, M.

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, U.

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Grobnic, D.

Groothoff, N.

Henderson, G.

Jackson, S. D.

Jovanovic, N.

Khrushchev, I.

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinet, D.

Lai, Y.

Lu, P.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, Opt. Lett. 28, 995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 1672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

Mezentsev, V. K.

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S.

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, Opt. Lett. 28, 995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mou, C.

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 36, 2988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigtländer, R. G. Becker, J. Thomas, D. Richter, A. Singh, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, Proc. SPIE 7589, 75890J (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

Singh, A.

Smelser, C.

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, Opt. Lett. 28, 995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. N.

Steel, M. J.

Thomas, J.

C. Voigtländer, R. G. Becker, J. Thomas, D. Richter, A. Singh, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. U.

J. U. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, Proc. SPIE 7589, 75890J (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Lett. 36, 2988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigtländer, R. G. Becker, J. Thomas, D. Richter, A. Singh, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 633 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, Proc. SPIE 7589, 75890J (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unruh, J.

Voigtländer, C.

Walker, R. B.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, Opt. Lett. 28, 995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wikszak, E.

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. J.

Withford, M. J.

Wuilpart, M.

Zeitner, U.

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Thomas, E. Wikszak, T. Clausnitzer, U. Fuchs, U. Zeitner, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 153 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2266 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, M. Dubov, C. Mou, L. Zhang, V. K. Mezentsev, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. U. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, Proc. SPIE 7589, 75890J (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Illustration of the core-scanning FBG-inscription technique. (b) Differential interference contrast (DIC) micrograph of a core-scanned FBG in SMF-28e fiber. The FBG has first-order resonance at 1543 nm with period Λ=533nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Values of κ and κ/α for first-order core-scanned FBGs inscribed with fs pulse energies in the range 100–120 nJ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of a first-order core-scanned FBG (solid black curve) and a PbP grating with similar grating strength κL (dashed red curve). Inset shows the same spectra on a smaller scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Values of κ and κ/α for core-scanned FBGs inscribed with first, second, and third-order resonances around 1540 nm. Inset: illustration of tilted grating planes at higher orders (exaggerated scale).

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