Abstract

The fiber laser hydrophone is compact, and it is easy to construct an array by using the multiplexing technique. However, the number of hydrophones multiplexed in the array through wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited. In order to expand the array, a spatial division multiplexing (SDM) method for addressing a fiber laser hydrophone array is researched. An optical switch is used in such array, and four distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser hydrophones are addressed by switch channels. Experimental results show that the switch channels’ crosstalk crucially influences the hydrophone signals’ signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In order to get good SNR, the crosstalk of the switch channels should be lower than 20dB. Each DFB laser in the SDM-addressed array may be replaced with a WDM-addressed array, so a DFB fiber laser hydrophone array with more than 64 elements can be constructed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. Steven, S. Foster, V. V. John, and M. Heyshan, Proc. SPIE 7503, 75034L (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Z. Li, J. B. Huang, H. C. Gu, and B. Tan, Proc. SPIE 7278, 72780B (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 20, 2149 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

A. Dandrige, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro and H. D. Dardy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhuta, P. G.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. A.

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro and H. D. Dardy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, C. B.

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dandrige, A.

A. Dandrige, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dardy, H. D.

J. A. Bucaro and H. D. Dardy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

David, J. W.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edvell, G.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

Englund, M.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

Foster, S.

G. Steven, S. Foster, V. V. John, and M. Heyshan, Proc. SPIE 7503, 75034L (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

Gardner, D. L.

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, S. L.

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandrige, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Graham, H.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, H. C.

R. Z. Li, J. B. Huang, H. C. Gu, and B. Tan, Proc. SPIE 7278, 72780B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heyshan, M.

G. Steven, S. Foster, V. V. John, and M. Heyshan, Proc. SPIE 7503, 75034L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hill, D. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. B.

R. Z. Li, J. B. Huang, H. C. Gu, and B. Tan, Proc. SPIE 7278, 72780B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inglis, H.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

Jackson, D. A.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 20, 2149 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

John, V. V.

G. Steven, S. Foster, V. V. John, and M. Heyshan, Proc. SPIE 7503, 75034L (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. L.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Keolian, R. M.

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. Z.

R. Z. Li, J. B. Huang, H. C. Gu, and B. Tan, Proc. SPIE 7278, 72780B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lobo Ribeiro, A. B.

Milnes, M.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

Nasha, P. J.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, S. F.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Steven, G.

G. Steven, S. Foster, V. V. John, and M. Heyshan, Proc. SPIE 7503, 75034L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B.

R. Z. Li, J. B. Huang, H. C. Gu, and B. Tan, Proc. SPIE 7278, 72780B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, A.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

Tveten, A. B.

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandrige, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. P. Koo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 616 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dandrige, A. B. Tveten, and T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1647 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, and P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro and H. D. Dardy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

R. Z. Li, J. B. Huang, H. C. Gu, and B. Tan, Proc. SPIE 7278, 72780B (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nasha, D. A. Jackson, J. W. David, S. F. O’Neill, I. Bennion, and L. Zhang, Proc. SPIE 3860, 55 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, V. V. John, and H. Graham, Proc. SPIE 5855, 627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Steven, S. Foster, V. V. John, and M. Heyshan, Proc. SPIE 7503, 75034L (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Brown, C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, D. L. Gardner, and S. L. Garrett, Proc. SPIE 1584, 328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, and M. Milnes, in Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society (2006), pp. 40–42.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of the SDM-addressed fiber laser hydrophone array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

TDM signal from one photodetector and sampled signals of the four DFB lasers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interference signals of one DFB laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Demodulated signal of a single DFB laser in the array. (a) Demodulated signal and (b) spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Demodulated signals of the four DFB lasers in the array: (a) laser 1, (b) laser 2, (c) laser 3, and (d) laser 4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Demodulated signals and spectra of the DFB laser array with lower switch channel crosstalk: (a) laser 1, (b) laser 2, (c) laser 3, and (d) laser 4.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Channel Crosstalk of Optical Switch 1

Tables Icon

Table 2. Channel Crosstalk of Optical Switch 2

Equations (1)

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φ(t)=4πnΔLλ(t),

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